Monday, 5 November 2012

Human Values for Business Success

Human Values for Business Success

Business success

Who am I? What do I want? It sometimes comes as a suprise to ask questions like that.  In the Google and QQ age it is the questions we ask that matter.  Are there human values shared by those who experience business success?  Are those common values and the ability to think and set goals linked with apparent coincidences which drive us towards those goals? This is called the phenomenon of synchronicity and is especially important for new businesses or projects.  

Is success the same as wellbeing?  How can we alter our customers and stakeholders wellbeing for the better?  One way certainly is not to make them suffer!   

An understanding of the Human values we all share are key to avoiding that suffering.This is not a 'positive thinking' book.  This is an awareness book.  We share a unique capacity for awareness yet peoples awareness varies widely and a common understanding is lacking but also growing as we become more aware of what our emotions of what is agreeable and disagreeable are and what they are used for in informing our value judgements.   To someone conditioned to being disagreeable there will be nothing worse than the company of someone cheerful and agreeable.

This may be the first book of its kind you have looked at outside your culture.  There is no need to imagine that you will need to abandon your culture to achieve this awareness or there is a unique path to awareness.  On the contrary you will I hope see that all culture both contains and seeks after this awareness.  This page aims to be both informative and awakening and that you too enjoy business success.  I hope you enjoy your time on this page.

What do we mean by the five elements of wellbeing? 
  • The first element is about how you occupy your time or simply liking what you do every day: your Career Wellbeing.
  • The second element is about having strong relationships and love in your life: your Social Wellbeing.
  • The third element is about effectively managing your economic life: your Financial Wellbeing.
  • The fourth element is about having good health and enough energy to get things done on a daily basis: your Physical Wellbeing.
  • The fifth element is about the sense of engagement you have with the area where you live: your Community Wellbeing.
Find out more

Human Need

Businesses exist to anticipate and meet human need.  A particular business exists to meet a particular need and employs the resources and talents of the various stakeholders to do so.  Those needs are identified, anticipated and met by people.  People are unique.  The chances of two people having the same strengths is very small so we work in teams with shared values and goals.  We all share awareness.  not only do we ask the questions we ask who is asking the questions!

Common values enable us to develop norms and habits.  Where we and others go against those norms and habits we experience stress and develop conscience.  We are concious of something agreeable or disagreeable and that something disagreeable or agreeable may happen.

Basic human needs of food, shelter and clothing can be met by a command economy.  This is not to say all human needs are 'good needs'.  For example white bread is a less healthy food than a wholemeal bread or a spelt bread.  However the decision about what is perceived as good is, within reason and custom, left to the consumer rather than the state.

 Higher needs require more flexibility. It is recognised internationally that individual firms operating in competitive markets provide this intelligence.  Business success requires that we compete effectively for resources. The most important resource we compete for is the time of others and the higher the need we aim to serve the more important this resource is.  An important consumer protection principle is 'volente non fit inuria'.  To the willing injury cannot be done. We need intelligent and responsible consumers for markets to work.

For those aiming for business success it is well worth working out where your personal strengths lie.  Happy interaction with others through changing times is key to business success and meeting higher human needs.  The purpose of this guide is to outline the human values commonly found in enduring and successful business.  Whether in personal or corporate life a key concept is balance in successfully reconciling rights and interests.

The spectacular breakdown of judgement in the BBC's Newsnight program shows that the ethical balance all organizations strive for cannot be taken for granted and requires training in ethics and the identification and exercise of virtues and identification of existing or possible evils.  A whole generation of schoolchildren have grown up without formal ethical or religious education and yet again and again we see in human affairs that this forms a critical skill both in life as well as in business.

Balance is a higher brain function.  Neuroscience shows us that we can literally grow our brains by practicing how to use it.   We need to know a little about our brains and a little about the nature of information and time.  All information can be reduced to something and nothing. A collection of ones and zeros. But there is not nothing in this nothing.  There is almost infinite possibilty.

First Who am I? -  some anatomy

Humanity has evolved along with the ecosystem which supports us.  We share 60% of our genes with plants.  Fish emerged some 500 million years ago.  Our brains as we know it today some 4 million years ago and modern homo sapiens some 50,000 years ago.  It is believed three distinct brains emerged successively in the course of evolution and now co-inhabit the human skull: The fish brain, the oldest of the three, controls the body's vital functions such as heart rate, breathing, body temperature and balance. Feeding, fight, flight and reproduction are successfully coordinated in the fish brain. The mammalian limbic brain emerged in the first mammals and is the seat of motivation and emotion involved in feeding, reproductive behavior, and parental behavior.  The memory of agreeable and disagreeable sensations results in value judgements.  The neocortex with its two large cerebral hemispheres in homo sapiens has been responsible for the development of human language, abstract thought, imagination, human culture and society and awareness.  Of course the three brains are connected to form one.

We still know very little of the brain.  The rat brain has a very small tiny neocortex compared to our own yet rats are highly intelligent.

This guide 

It is my belief, and the reason I have written this little guide, that business ethics are about far more than not doing evil.  They are central to business success.  As a trained numbers man with qualifications in economics and accountancy I am a firm believer in watching the numbers like a hawk to achieve and maintain results and in the ability to read financial statements.  However I have noticed as I think everyone else has that this is not sufficient.  Increasingly stakeholders require businesses to achieve their results while adhering to or exceeding ethical norms (positively doing good) - the best businesses always have.

I have illustrated the HVBS guide with a number of images from the natural world to illustrate the text.   To provide.particular primary, secondary and tertiary business examples I have used the essential oil industry which involves the growing of plants, the manufacture of products and their professional use internationally in aromatherapy, healthcare, cookery and to meet personal aesthetic needs.

Aromatherapy like homeopathy is an inherently ethical business as it requires the use of trained human skill and harmless substances to achieve its results.

Other businesses and companies provide examples of codes of ethics and I give examples in this guide.  Those in leadership positions are particularly bound by codes of personal and corporate ethics.  Ethical behaviour can also be increasingly seen to influence consumers who prefer to buy from ethical companies or those signing up for example to organic standards.  

 Ethics among shareholders, owners, directors and management are a necessary element for companies to balance the rights and interests of all stakeholders involved.  Making the ethisphere list requires "going beyond making statements about doing business ethically and translating those words into action."

Peoples habits are a balance between custom and reason.  To take an example the safe and effective use of essential oils requires both reason and research and faith and belief.  It is rather through faith and belief that we fix our minds on our aims and values in life.  Faith and belief give our lives direction.  Like plants we need the light of an illuminated mind. Through reason and research we choose our objects and objectives and free ourselves from customary habits which no longer serve our needs.

Success can be defined in many ways.  Survival day to day with no thought of the future is success in itself.  I am not suggesting for example that aromatherapists take a vow of poverty.  I am observing how little we need for our personal survival and that of others.  Often when essential oils are used it is to meet needs that would be met in destructive ways - for example their use in relaxing excessive appetite or in stimulating appetite.

Acquiring our basic needs through helping others meet theirs - work - is not a matter of executive jets and the accumulation of wealth.  Wealth can cut us off from the world of work and so helping others. Wealth can also let us do good for example through the provision of finance to charity or business to meet needs.  We do not have to lose sight of our personal values but it is harder to retain them if they are not exercised.

Success requires us to identify our strengths to enable us to go further.  In the words of Gallup  

The Best Coaches

Focus on what's right with people. Teach others to turn talents into strengths. Help others use strengths to achieve success.

Gallup business journal 

More from Gallup 

Emotions and morality

It could be said that business in competitive markets is morally neutral - "Its just business"  you might say, a mathematical matter of balancing income and expenditure.  However business involves people and people are never morally neutral. Peoples emotions and unique strengths are a key to business success. Identifying and training in fundamental principles is therefore necessary.  Which human values do we take to work and which do we leave at home?

Fortunately for us just four principles, justice/fairness (to be fair is to be just), love/mutual respect, (mutual respect is neccessary for communication) stewardship (the young are the trustees of the future) and honesty (honesty is the best policy) form the moral basis of our corporate guidelines, policy, conduct of individuals and conduct of directors at work.

To some extent our human values are not conditioned by our genetic inheritance and upbringing.  We are able to choose where we habitually operate along moral spectrums lying between vice and virtue.  Everyone makes differant choices.  We need to get by with people whose choices whether by free will, experience or custom are not the same as our own.  We therefore need to have some understanding of vice and virtue recognising that business values can differ from religious values and that religion often requires abstinence and for us to turn our backs on the world altogether.  Something which is not possible in business. 

Legal codes

Adherence to the law is undoubtedly one of the human values required for business success.  At the end of his guide you will find the provisions of the UK Companies Act 2006 S170-177 which guide the conduct of DirectorsHuman values for business success differ from adherence to legal rules which tend to reflect minimum standards of behaviour.  Legalistic codes cannot hope to cover the diverse issues to be found in business nor indicate the positive values required for business success. 

Integrity, Intelligence, Energy 

In the UK there are 4.5million small and medium sized businesses that account for 99% of all enterprise, employ 14 million people and together earn a turnover of £1.5trillion. 

Big ideas are important but so are the little incremental changes made in our businesses by employees.  It is ofte those little changes which make the bigger ideas and vision a successful reality.  How do you instill an entrepreneural culture in your business whether public or private sector and make employees  feel as passionate about what you are doing as you are?

Whereas Integrity, Intelligence and Energy are necessary values for human success in any sphere they apply particularly to business which involves dealings in property whether of goods, buildings or land and the finance involved in their creation and maintenance and with people.   Integrity requires personal morality and conscience which is often informed by religious or political example as well as by the principal of ‘do no evil’. 

However religions and some political systems require little or no individual attachment to property and some distance from people. All require some form of belief in the future.  So does business.  Belief in the future, progressive business aims, are the driving force and spirit of business and the responsibility for this vision of the future rests with the Board of Directors.

Four principles, justice, love, stewardship and honesty form the moral basis of our corporate guidelines, policy, conduct of individuals and conduct of directors at work.

Generally those in business act ethically and effectively and respond to market information and change. What happens if they dont?  No one comes around with a big stick.  Its far worse than that - the stakeholders (employees, providers of finance, customers, suppliers, community, owners) conflict or leave and the business can cease.  In the UK there were 16,871 compulsory liquidations and creditors’ voluntary liquidations in total in 2011 – an increase of 5.1% on 2010.

Corporate Boards of Directors sometimes disagree on policy or perceptions so matters are often put to the vote following debate and reasoned consideration at an agreed time and place in a democratic fashion.  Boards of Directors act in accordance with business rules contained in the business's articles.  Information is presented to the Board and action or non action is agreed in relation to it.  The better the information the greater likelihood of agreement and early identification and correction of problems.  Monthly and Annual Financial statements with comparisons to budgets and prior periods form a basis for informed effective action and stewardship. The ability to budget accurately requires an understanding of the workings of a particular business and for all parts of the business to communicate and report effectively among people with differing customs. 

In this guide we look at some of the things which makes us uniquely human and allow us to communicate despite a range of differing customs - our human values and in particular our aesthetic sense.   America recently had the chance to elect Mitt Romney.  It is one of the articles of Mr Romneys Mormon faith  that

"We believe in being honest, true, chaste, benevolent, virtuous, and in doing good to all men..... If there is anything virtuous, lovely, or of good report or praiseworthy, we seek after these things."

Everyone can understand that.


Four key concepts recur in the literature of faiths and form the basis of any human interaction, and are applicable to business relationships. They are: justice (fairness), mutual respect (love and consideration), stewardship (trusteeship) and honesty (truthfulness).

1. Justice

The first principle is justice which can be defined as just conduct, fairness, exercise of authority in maintenance of human right.

2. Mutual Respect (Love)

The second principle-mutual respect or love and consideration for others -is also
inherent in the moral teachings of religion. What Scripture expresses as love is here rendered as mutual respect or reciprocal regard that exists between two individuals. The application of this has come to mean that self interest only has a place in the community in as much as it takes into account the interests of others. Of paramount importance in this respect is the employee.

3. Stewardship

A third principle is that of stewardship (trusteeship). While this may be readily understood by an owner of a small business or an inheritor of an agricultural holding, the principle is applicable to anyone who is entrusted with the responsibility of managing scarce resources. It applies equally to individual wealth, the long-term viability of a business. Ownership is not seen, therefore, to be absolute. As such, businesses have an obligation to use resources for the benefit of the people in society at large as well as for its stockholders.  The New Testament stresses the accountability of Christians for the way they have used resources. Jesus summed this up by stating: “From everyone to whom much is given, much will be required” (Luke 12:48).  This principle provides a longer term perspective for business decisions than is likely to be found where the concept of absolute ownership predominates. It also provides the basis for a proper concern for the natural environment on which business activity  makes considerable demands. It implies a caring management not a selfish exploitation and is concerned with both present and future.

4. Honesty

The fourth principle is honesty. It incorporates the concepts of truthfulness and reliability and covers all aspects of relationships in human life-thought, word and action. It is more than just accuracy, it is an attitude which is well summed up in the word “integrity.”  Muslims place considerable emphasis on truthfulness in business. For instance, in a Hadith it is stated: “The merchant whose words and transactions are righteous and who is a trusty man will be (resurrected) amongst the martyrs in the day of judgement” (Ibn Mace, Sunan, II/724, no. 2139 [Ticaveti]).  Jews too constantly stress honesty as the basis for human relationships. The book of Leviticus is explicit concerning honesty in business: “You shall have true scales, true weights, true measures” (Lev. 19: 36), and “All who act dishonestly are an abomination to the Lord” (Dt. 26: 16), and regarding truthfulness, the Decalogue states: “You should not bear false witness” (Ex. 20: 16).

These four principles, justice, love, stewardship and honesty form the moral basis of the Guidelines that follow.

One has only to hear accounts of flaws in the justice system which the appeals system allows to be corrected to understand that maintainance of these principles requires training and continual vigilence.  Much of the training we acquire as young people in these principles is acquired indirectly in the classroom, on the sports field or in the home.  

A little History

One reason for the study of human history is to arrive at commonly held human values in relation to consequences.  In English history it is possible to contrast the characters the narrator portrays of Henry I (1100 to 1135), very much the man of business who devoted himself to royal administration, Richard I the  crusader king and man of action (1189-1199), and King John portrayed as the extortionate tyrant (1199-1216). The end of Johns reign saw the 1215 Magna Carta, a charter required the king to proclaim certain liberties and accept that no free man could be punished except through the law of land, a right that still exists.



All business activity takes place within the context of a political and economic
system. What is customary in one country or community may not be customary in another.  

It is recognised that:

1. Business is part of the social order. Its primary purpose is to meet human and material needs by producing and distributing goods and services in an efficient manner. How this role is carried out-the means as well as the end-is important to the whole of society.

2. Competition between businesses has generally been shown to be the most effective way to ensure that resources are not wasted, costs are minimized and prices fair. The State has a duty to see that markets operate effectively, competition is maintained and natural monopolies are regulated. Business will not seek to frustrate this.

3. All economic systems have flaws; that based on free and open markets is morally neutral and has great potential for good. Private enterprise, sometimes in partnership with the State, has the potential to make efficient and sustainable use of resources, thereby creating wealth which can be used for the benefit of everyone.

4. There is no basic conflict between good business practice and profit making. Profit is one measure of efficiency and is of paramount importance in the functioning of the system. It provides for the maintenance and growth of business, thus expanding employment opportunities and is the means of a rising living standard for all concerned.  It also acts as an incentive to work and be enterprising. It is from the profit of companies that society can reasonably levy taxes to finance its wider needs.  Profit should not therefore be concealed.

5. Because the free market system, like any other, is open to abuse, it can be used for selfish or sectional interests, or it can be used for good. The State has an obligation to provide a framework of law in which business can operate honestly and fairly and business will obey and respect the law of the State in which it operates.  The law exists for the prompt and fair resolution of private disputes.

6. As business is a partnership of people of varying gifts they should never be considered as merely a factor of production. The terms of their employment will be consistent with the highest standards of human dignity.

7. The efficient use of scarce resources will be ensured by the business. Resources employed by corporations include finance (savings), technology (machinery) and land and natural renewable resources). All are important and most are scarce.

8. Business has a responsibility to future generations to improve the quality of goods and service, not to degrade the natural environment in which it operates and seek to enrich the lives of those who work within it. Short-term profitability should not be pursued at the expense of long term viability of the business. Neither should business operations disadvantage the wider community.


Business activity involves human relationships; it is the question of balancing the
reasonable interests of those involved in the process: i.e., the stakeholders, that produces moral and ethical problems. The policies of the business will therefore be based on the principles set out in the paragraphs above and in particular:

1. The board of directors will be responsible for seeing that the business operates strictly within the letter and spirit of the laws of nations in which it works.

2. The board will issue a written statement concerning the objectives, operating policies of the organisation and their application. It will set out clearly the obligations of the company towards the different stakeholders involved with a business [employees, shareholders, lenders, customers, suppliers and the community (local and national government), owners].

3. The basis of the relationship with the principal stakeholders shall be honesty and fairness, by which is meant integrity, in all relationships as will as reliability in all commitments made on behalf of the organisation.

4. The business shall maintain a continuing relationship with each of the groups with which it is involved. It will provide effective means to communicate information affecting the stakeholders. This relationship is based on trust.

5. The best practice to be adopted in dealings with six particular stakeholders, employees, providers of finance, customers, suppliers, community and owners can be summarized as follows:

a) Employees

Employees make a unique contribution to an organisation; it follows that in their policies, businesses shall where appropriate, take notice of trade union positions and provide:
i) Working conditions that are safe and healthy and conducive to high standards of work.
ii) Levels of remuneration that are fair and just, that recognize the employees’
contribution to the organisation and the performance of the sector of the business in which they work.
iii) A respect for the individual (whether male or female) in their beliefs, their family responsibility and their need to grow as human beings. It will provide equal opportunities in training and promotion for all members of the organisation. It will not discriminate in its policies on grounds of race, color, creed, or gender.
iv) Recognise that time is the most valuable asset employees contribute and endeavour to ensure that time is not wasted and that time can be utilised most effectively for mutual benefit. 
v) Recognise that employees want to be proud of the business they work in and the meeting of the needs of the customers that the product or service they supply does.
vii) Recognise that employee wages are usually the largest business expense and the need to balance the remuneration of all stakeholders in the business consistent with the survival and progress of the business.

b) Providers of Finance

A business cannot operate without finance. There is therefore, a partnership between the provider and the user. The company borrowing money shall give to the lender:
i) What has been agreed to be repaid at the due dates.
ii) Adequate safeguards in using the resources entrusted.
iii) Regular information on the operations of the business and opportunities to raise with directors matters concerning their performance. 
iv) In setting rewards for landlords who provide business premises and lenders there must be consideration of the fact that the lenders (directly or indirectly) have contributed their money to the business in a temporary fashion.  Had lenders borrowed the money to do so they would need a 15% dividend to return the funds to a lender in 8 years and earn a 2.5% per annum return.


c) Customers

Without meeting the needs of its clients and customers a business cannot survive. Client distributors include those who distribute the company's products to customers.  In selling products or services, a company shall provide for the customer as the end user of its product:
i) The quality and standard of service which has been agreed.
ii) After-sales service commensurate with the type of product or service and the price paid.
iii) Where applicable, a contract written in unambiguous terms.
iv) Informative and accurate information regarding the use of the product or service especially where misuse can be dangerous.
v) Provide training, information and support to clients who distribute the Company's products to end user customers.

d) Suppliers

Suppliers provide a daily flow of raw materials, products and services to enable a
business to operate. The relationship with suppliers is normally a long term one and must therefore be based on mutual trust. Better businesses maintain strong links with suppliers and genuinely partner to secure mutual benefit.The company shall:
i) Undertake to pay its suppliers promptly and in accordance with agreed terms of trade.
ii) Not use its buying power in an unscrupulous fashion.
iii) Require buyers to report offers of gifts or favors of unusual size or questionable purpose.
iv) Work to help suppliers effect improvements.

e) Community (Local and National Government)

While companies have an obligation to work within the law, they must also take into account the effects of their activities on local and national communities.  Strong roots in the locality will benefit business in many ways.   In particularly they shall:
i) Ensure that they protect the local environment from harmful emissions from
manufacturing plant, excessive noise and any practice likely to endanger humans, animals or plant life.
ii) Consider the social consequences of company decisions e.g. plant closures, choice of new sites or expansion of existing ones.
iii) Not tolerate any form of bribery, extortion or other corrupt or corrupting practices in business dealings.
iv) Actively promote local links to the community in which they operate.

f) Owners (shareholders)

The shareholders undertake the risks of ownership. Elected directors shall:
i) Protect the interests of shareholders.
ii) See that the company’s accounting statements are true and timely.
iii) See that shareholders are kept informed of all major happenings affecting the
iv) In setting rewards for shareholders there must be consideration of the fact that the shareholders have contributed their money to the business in a permanent fashion.  Rewards for shareholders are not automatic however no business run with a view to profit can reasonably fail to reward shareholders when a profit is declared.  Had shareholders borrowed the money to do so they would need a 15% dividend to return the funds to a lender in 8 years and earn a 2.5% return.


The following are based on best ethical practice for employees in a business.
Employees of an organisation shall:

1. Implement the decisions of those to whom he or she is responsible which are lawful and in accordance with the company’s policies in cooperation with colleagues.

2. Avoid all abuse of power for personal gain, advantage or prestige and in particular refuse bribes or other inducements of any sort intended to encourage dishonesty or to break the law.

3. Not use any information acquired in the business for personal gain or for the benefit of relatives or outside associates.

4. Reveal the facts to his superiors whenever his personal business or financial interests become involved with those of the company.

5. Be actively concerned with the difficulties and problems of subordinates, treat them fairly and lead them effectively, assuring them a right of reasonable access and appeal to those to whom their immediate superior is responsible.

6. Bring to the attention of superiors the likely effects on employees of the company’s plans for the future so that such effects can be fully taken into account.



While Directors may delegate certain duties to management to carry out they delegate none of the ultimate responsibility for those duties.

Belief in the future, progressive business aims, are the driving force and spirit of business and the responsibility for this vision of the future rests with the Board of Directors.

A director owes to his company seven statutory general duties (Companies Act 2006, sections 170 to 177), which might conveniently be divided into those of loyalty and good faith, analogous to those owed by a trustee, and those of care and skill.



Legal frameworks vary from country to country.  Here is the legal framework in the UK.  Companies Act 2006


A director owes to his company seven statutory general duties (Companies Act 2006, sections 170 to 177), which might conveniently be divided into those of loyalty and good faith, analogous to those owed by a trustee, and those of care and skill,

170Scope and nature of general duties

(1)The general duties specified in sections 171 to 177 are owed by a director of a company to the company.
(2)A person who ceases to be a director continues to be subject—
(a)to the duty in section 175 (duty to avoid conflicts of interest) as regards the exploitation of any property, information or opportunity of which he became aware at a time when he was a director, and
(b)to the duty in section 176 (duty not to accept benefits from third parties) as regards things done or omitted by him before he ceased to be a director.
To that extent those duties apply to a former director as to a director, subject to any necessary adaptations.
(3)The general duties are based on certain common law rules and equitable principles as they apply in relation to directors and have effect in place of those rules and principles as regards the duties owed to a company by a director.
(4)The general duties shall be interpreted and applied in the same way as common law rules or equitable principles, and regard shall be had to the corresponding common law rules and equitable principles in interpreting and applying the general duties.
(5)The general duties apply to shadow directors where, and to the extent that, the corresponding common law rules or equitable principles so apply.

171Duty to act within powers

A director of a company must—
(a)act in accordance with the company's constitution, and
(b)only exercise powers for the purposes for which they are conferred.




172Duty to promote the success of the company

(1)A director of a company must act in the way he considers, in good faith, would be most likely to promote the success of the company for the benefit of its members as a whole, and in doing so have regard (amongst other matters) to—
(a)the likely consequences of any decision in the long term,
(b)the interests of the company's employees,
(c)the need to foster the company's business relationships with suppliers, customers and others,
(d)the impact of the company's operations on the community and the environment,
(e)the desirability of the company maintaining a reputation for high standards of business conduct, and
(f)the need to act fairly as between members of the company.
(2)Where or to the extent that the purposes of the company consist of or include purposes other than the benefit of its members, subsection (1) has effect as if the reference to promoting the success of the company for the benefit of its members were to achieving those purposes.
(3)The duty imposed by this section has effect subject to any enactment or rule of law requiring directors, in certain circumstances, to consider or act in the interests of creditors of the company.

173Duty to exercise independent judgment

(1)A director of a company must exercise independent judgment.
(2)This duty is not infringed by his acting—
(a)in accordance with an agreement duly entered into by the company that restricts the future exercise of discretion by its directors, or
(b)in a way authorised by the company's constitution.

174Duty to exercise reasonable care, skill and diligence

(1)A director of a company must exercise reasonable care, skill and diligence.
(2)This means the care, skill and diligence that would be exercised by a reasonably diligent person with—
(a)the general knowledge, skill and experience that may reasonably be expected of a person carrying out the functions carried out by the director in relation to the company, and
(b)the general knowledge, skill and experience that the director has.

175Duty to avoid conflicts of interest

(1)A director of a company must avoid a situation in which he has, or can have, a direct or indirect interest that conflicts, or possibly may conflict, with the interests of the company.
(2)This applies in particular to the exploitation of any property, information or opportunity (and it is immaterial whether the company could take advantage of the property, information or opportunity).
(3)This duty does not apply to a conflict of interest arising in relation to a transaction or arrangement with the company.
(4)This duty is not infringed—
(a)if the situation cannot reasonably be regarded as likely to give rise to a conflict of interest; or
(b)if the matter has been authorised by the directors.
(5)Authorisation may be given by the directors—
(a)where the company is a private company and nothing in the company's constitution invalidates such authorisation, by the matter being proposed to and authorised by the directors; or
(b)where the company is a public company and its constitution includes provision enabling the directors to authorise the matter, by the matter being proposed to and authorised by them in accordance with the constitution.
(6)The authorisation is effective only if—
(a)any requirement as to the quorum at the meeting at which the matter is considered is met without counting the director in question or any other interested director, and
(b)the matter was agreed to without their voting or would have been agreed to if their votes had not been counted.
(7)Any reference in this section to a conflict of interest includes a conflict of interest and duty and a conflict of duties.

176Duty not to accept benefits from third parties

(1)A director of a company must not accept a benefit from a third party conferred by reason of—
(a)his being a director, or
(b)his doing (or not doing) anything as director.
(2)A “third party” means a person other than the company, an associated body corporate or a person acting on behalf of the company or an associated body corporate.
(3)Benefits received by a director from a person by whom his services (as a director or otherwise) are provided to the company are not regarded as conferred by a third party.
(4)This duty is not infringed if the acceptance of the benefit cannot reasonably be regarded as likely to give rise to a conflict of interest.
(5)Any reference in this section to a conflict of interest includes a conflict of interest and duty and a conflict of duties.

177Duty to declare interest in proposed transaction or arrangement

(1)If a director of a company is in any way, directly or indirectly, interested in a proposed transaction or arrangement with the company, he must declare the nature and extent of that interest to the other directors.
(2)The declaration may (but need not) be made—
(a)at a meeting of the directors, or
(b)by notice to the directors in accordance with—
(i)section 184 (notice in writing), or
(ii)section 185 (general notice).
(3)If a declaration of interest under this section proves to be, or becomes, inaccurate or incomplete, a further declaration must be made.
(4)Any declaration required by this section must be made before the company enters into the transaction or arrangement.
(5)This section does not require a declaration of an interest of which the director is not aware or where the director is not aware of the transaction or arrangement in question.
For this purpose a director is treated as being aware of matters of which he ought reasonably to be aware.
(6)A director need not declare an interest—
(a)if it cannot reasonably be regarded as likely to give rise to a conflict of interest;
(b)if, or to the extent that, the other directors are already aware of it (and for this purpose the other directors are treated as aware of anything of which they ought reasonably to be aware); or
(c)if, or to the extent that, it concerns terms of his service contract that have been or are to be considered—
(i)by a meeting of the directors, or

(ii)by a committee of the directors appointed for the purpose under the company's constitution.


What human values are required for business success within the workplace.  Can we be more specific.  How can we train and practice?  Here we come to the distiction between human values and standards.  These are the standards to be expected for business success.  Here we apply our fundamental principles not academically but practically and vocationally.

Physical Values
The precision, exactness, and conforming to fact in details of work.
--of offices, production and warehouse facilities, equipment, customer service areas, raw material and finished product inventory, closets, bathrooms, and so on
Maximum Utilization of Resources
The desire and ability of the company to improve its performance by full utilization of its current resources (i.e. as time, money, equipment, materials, space, people, etc.).
--in offices, drawers, file cabinets, shelves, paperwork, files, phone numbers, priority of work, daily and weekly planning, etc.
Punctuality and Timeliness
--in arriving on time to work, from breaks, from lunch, to meetings, in replying to letters and phone calls, in paying bills on time, etc. Occurring at the most suitable or opportune time.
Quality of Products and Services
--in terms of presentation, functionality, choice, value, speed, timeliness, suitability, repeatability, reliability, life span, repeatability, courtesy, friendliness, etc.
--of meetings, reports, sales calls, performance reviews, and so forth
The way system or persons consistently produce the same results, preferably meeting or exceeding its specifications. Dependability.
The way people, the organization, systems, etc. react to a need coming from within or without.
--in offices, warehouses, production and research facilities, vehicles, for employees, vendors, customers. etc.
Speed of Operations
The measurement of whether actions occur in the fastest time.

Organizational Values
--of individuals, departments and divisions for performance, results, problems, and so on
--up, down, and sideways within the company, with customers and vendors, in terms of openness, frankness, clarity, frequency, accuracy, timeliness, and brevity
Cooperation (Teamwork)
--among individuals, departments, divisions, branches, and so on
--horizontally between departments in terms of plans, activities, and systems
--in adherence to company policy, rules, systems, procedures, schedules, standards, ethics, and so on
Freedom for Initiative of Employees
--to make suggestions, develop plans, make decisions, carry out or modify actions, and so on
--for smooth operation vertically between different levels of the organization in terms of plans, decisions, and priorities
--in terms of forms, files, procedures, reports, performance evaluations, equipment, training, recruitment, orientations, communications, and so on
--in sales, marketing, customer service, accounting, research, production, engineering, estimating, recruitment, training, promotions, communications, coordination, reporting, and so on

Psychological Values
Continuous Improvement
The desire and ability of the company to develop and incorporate ways to improve itself.

--in terms of new products, new ideas, new systems, new production methods, new applications of technology, new methods of financing, new marketing strategies
Customer Delight
The positive emotional response and joy that the customer feels from interaction with our people and our products and services.
--in solving problems, planning, executing plans, in terms of speed and commitment to decisions once made
Develop People
The desire and ability of the company to improve the lot of its employees, including, ultimately, their personal growth.  Commitment to people
The overall atmosphere and interaction between people, departments, divisions, systems, activities, rules, and policies within the company and between these elements and the external environment, customers, vendors, community laws, and so on.
The desire and ability of the company to venture into new, breakthrough areas of opportunity. (e.g. in the industry, in emerging trends in society, etc.)
Keeping to one's word, promises, agreements, being truthful, non-deceitful etc. with employees, customers, vendors, government, etc.
--to and from suppliers, customers, and employees
The ability to deal resourcefully, i.e. creatively, imaginatively, self-reliably with unusual problems, difficult situations, or unanticipated opportunities.
Respect for the Individual
--in establishing rules and policies, design of systems, making decisions, executing instructions, and so on in terms of people's health, safety, self-esteem, feelings, and opinions
Service to Society
Community welfare, environmental protection, development of products and services that meet real physical, social, or psychological needs.
(A Will to ) Succeed
--in any aspect of work


The products of business and pricing are crucial matters to consider and are as diverse as the human needs they exist to meet.


Sources of information
Types of business
Selection of a clinic position
Keeping records and accounts
Publicity and advertising

Source of information

Before opening a business it is wise to gather as much information as possible.
Sources of information       -    library
                                           -    Citizens Advice Bureau
                                           -    high street banks
                                           -    small business advisory centres
                                           -    DSS
                                           -    county hall

Business courses are run frequently at most colleges of further education.

 Types of business

Let us look at the many different types of business to be considered, studying the advantages and the disadvantages.

Practice at home: Advantages      -      No travelling - low rent
                                                       Good atmosphere
                                                       Relaxing - confidential
                                                       Poss                      ibility of retail sales
                                                       Own hours
                                                       Easy to close for holidays
                                                       Easy to book appointments

                            Disadvantages-   Higher insurance rates
                                                       Extra rates - large house or extension
                                                       Parking spaces required for clients
                                                       Cost of wiring/plumbing alterations
                                                       Licence required? - ask local council
                                                       Planning permission
                                                       Always at work - lack of privacy
                                                       Answerphone needed
                                                       Difficulty re men clients for women practitioners
                                                       Problem of children (yours and theirs)
                                                       Laundry work
                                                       Cost of decorations
                                                       Advertising difficulties
                                                       No shop window

Home visiting practice:
   Advantages-                    Choose own hours
                                           No licence needed
                                           Very low overheads
                                           Electricity and heating paid by clients
                                           Perhaps use clients products, towels, etc
                                           Good client/therapist relationship - friendly
                                           No large capital outlay
                                           No (or little) laundry

Disadvantages-                   Client may not relax - children, callers, phone, domestic problems
                                           Large car or van may be needed
                                           No casual customers
                                           Answerphone needed
                                           Petrol costs
                                           Route planning
                                           Wasted time
                                           Parking difficulties
                                           Electricity, plugs
Permanent clinic: Although a clinic of your own could be very expensive to set up, there are many ways of subletting a business within a business.  For example, all the following places may have space to rent for one, two or more days a week:
                                           a)  GP surgery or health centre
                                           b)  Leisure/sports centre
                                           c)  Health club
                                           d) Complementary therapy surgery
                                           e)  Health food outlet
                                           f)  Chemist outlet
                                           g)  Hair and beauty salon
                                           h)  Trust hospital building

The advantages of subletting are that you may well be able to use the existing receptionist to take bookings when you are not there.  Also the room will be looked after by your landlord.  You could have an exciting career by working in a different environment each day of the week!

Advantages-                       Appointments easy to book - receptionist
                                           Professional equipment
                                           Casual - inquiries
                                           Shop window
                                           Free personal life when shop is shut
                                           Retail sales advantage
                                           Men clients

Disadvantages-                   High overheads
                                           Licence?  Planning?
                                           Conform to shop laws
                                           Wages bill?
                                           Staff problems/worry
                                           Late nights/fixed hours
                                           Large amount of capital needed
                                           Money tied up in stock
                                           Holiday arrangements difficult

Selecting a clinic position

Choose an area, visit it and make a preliminary survey.  Inquire if there are many therapists in the area; check Yellow Pages, local news, etc.  Is it a dormitory area or industrial?  If most people in the area are at work during the day, the evening work may be necessary.

Inside - the clinic decor and layout should given an impression of efficiency, cleanliness and success.  The same criteria apply to the uniforms.

Keeping records and accounts:

Information needs to be kept to find out if the business is running at profit or loss and to pinpoint any rectifiable loss.  The types of account books kept depend on size and form of business.  All financial records should have definite purpose and should be as simple as possible to cut down labour time.  The clinic owner should decide what they need, in consultation with an accountant.  An analysed cashbook is usually all that is necessary.  The transactions of all businesses fall into either Purchase or Sales.  Purchases are consumable stock (essential oils, carrier oils, lotions, creams, etc), equipment (couches, trolleys), furniture (desk, chairs, filing cabinets, table) and fixtures and fittings (basins).

The clinic owner should file invoices in alphabetical order, check statements with invoices and delivery notes and pay if correct.  Record in the cashbook by entering on the CREDIT (payments, out) side and analysing the sum under the various columns.  Thus, amounts spent on specific items (e.g. rates, laundry etc.) can be seen.  If amount has been paid in cash, enter in CASH column: if paid by cheque use BANK column.

The sales (left hand side, debit, receipts, IN) side of the cashbook will show monies received for professional treatments and sales of goods.  Separate the totals each day.
The day’s dockets should be sorted as soon as possible - the total (or totals) entered in receipt side of cashbook.  If desired the receipts can be analysed in detail (e.g. by various types of treatment or by practitioners, etc.) by using ANALYSIS COLUMNS.  Similarly with payments made.

This system is very simple, easy to keep up, providing that all transactions are meticulously entered in the CASHBOOK and kept up-to-date on a daily basis.  This book, together with the supporting documents, will provide enough information to enable you/your accountant to satisfy the Inland Revenue (Income Tax) and Customs and Excise (VAT).

A real benefit is that it will be possible to use the book for highlighting areas of profitability/improfitability.  This method is known as single entry type of bookkeeping - open to error and fraud.  It is eminently suitable for the small clinic.

For the medium sized clinic a more comprehensive double entry system would be required.

Other records to be kept: Wages book, deduction cards (tax), National Insurance cards, time book, stock books and client records - all must be kept for 7 years.

 Publicity and Advertising
·         Newspapers - Most newspapers will offer free services on layout of advertising, although newspaper advertising is not always successful unless you have a permanent clinic.  Word of mouth is usually your best form of advertising.

·         Shop window

·         Posters, leaflets - should be professional and attractive.  Always take plenty with you if talking to a large group of people.  

·         Public Relations - Talks and demonstrations to interested groups (church, club, sporting, social, home parties, etc).  Get in touch with women's page editors, offer free massage for a write up and photo.  Offer to do a short weekly or monthly article on an oil or a condition - always putting your name and telephone number in the article.

N.B.     If doing parties it is better to do skin care separately from common ailments so that you can invite the same groups back again.

Business acumen: Selling treatments - often it is more professional to do a full consultation as a separate first treatment, offering enough time to choose comprehensive home treatment.  This guides you as to the number and type of treatments your client may need to feel benefit.

Always remain in control of your client's visiting times - you tell the client when he/she will need to come again, you are the professional.  Often paying in advance can relieve the embarrassment of asking for payment after a healing aromatherapy treatment.  Several sessions paid for in one lump sum could mean you were able to offer discounts.

Always sell home treatments for maximum results.  Try to involve the clients in their own treatment.  For example, if selling a cellulite treatment show the client how to body brush, apply the oil with simple massage movements and then compress.  This is much more impressive than saying, "just slap it on".  Sales of skin care and home treatment products become part of your gross income - a large part, and also impress your client.  Clients respond so well to informed home treatment routines, they pass on the good news to others and your client list will grow.

Professional organisations and press: IFPA, IFA, NAHA, etc.
Aromatherapy Today, International Journal of Aromatherapy,


Skepticism or scepticism is generally any questioning attitude towards knowledge, facts, or opinions/beliefs stated as fact
 all information to be well supported by evidence. Classical philosophical skepticism derives from the 'Skeptikoi', a school who "asserted nothing". Skeptics may even doubt the reliability of their own senses (particularly their eyes). Religious skepticism, on the other hand is "doubt concerning basic religious principles (such as immortality, providence, and revelation)" Scientists are often skeptics, who admit the possibility of knowledge based on evidence, but hold that new evidence may always overturn these findings.


Scepticism usually involves one thought too many. (Ian Brealey) 


The Bishop of Durham
The Rt Rev Justin Welby

meet the new Archbishop of Canterbury.  A significant moment for peace and democracy.

Ian Brealey 

Find out more


Like a picture looking for often repeated sayings often conveys more than many words.

The reader can think of life and business sayings from their own experience of life and mentoring to illustrate the  four fundamental principles: justice (fairness), mutual respect (love and consideration), stewardship (trusteeship) and honesty (truthfulness) and their application to stakeholders. employees, providers of finance, customers, suppliers, community and owners to achieve business success.

Here are some by way of example.  What would they say?

Four fundamental principles: 

justice (fairness), 

 “In case of dissension, never dare to judge till you've heard the other side.”(Euripedes)

 “Fairness does not mean everyone gets the same. Fairness means everyone gets what they need.”(Riordan)

mutual respect (love and consideration), 


"If you set your mind on humanity, you will be free from evil." ~ Confucius

stewardship (trusteeship) 


and honesty (truthfulness) 


 “People are often unreasonable and self-centered. Forgive them anyway.
If you are kind, people may accuse you of ulterior motives. Be kind anyway.
If you are honest, people may cheat you. Be honest anyway.
If you find happiness, people may be jealous. Be happy anyway.
The good you do today may be forgotten tomorrow. Do good anyway.
Give the world the best you have and it may never be enough. Give your best anyway.
For you see, in the end, it is between you and God. It was never between you and them anyway.”(Mother Theresa)

and their application to 


 Do to others whatever you would like them to do to you. This is the essence of all that is taught in the law and the prophets. (Matthew)



providers of finance, 






community and 




to achieve business success. 


As LinkedIn is a business that started in a living room, much like Virgin began in a basement, I thought my first blog on the site should be about how to simply start a successful business. Here are five top tips I’ve picked up over the years.

1. Listen more than you talk

We have two ears and one mouth, using them in proportion is not a bad idea! To be a good leader you have to be a great listener. Brilliant ideas can spring from the most unlikely places, so you should always keep your ears open for some shrewd advice. This can mean following online comments as closely as board meeting notes, or asking the frontline staff for their opinions as often as the CEOs. Get out there, listen to people, draw people out and learn from them.

2. Keep it simple

You have to do something radically different to stand out in business. But nobody ever said different has to be complex. There are thousands of simple business solutions to problems out there, just waiting to be solved by the next big thing in business. Maintain a focus upon innovation, but don’t try to reinvent the wheel. A simple change for the better is far more effective than five complicated changes for the worse.

3. Take pride in your work

Last week I enjoyed my favourite night of the year, the Virgin Stars of the Year Awards, where we celebrated some of those people who have gone the extra mile for us around the Virgin world. With so many different companies, nationalities and personalities represented under one roof, it was interesting to see what qualities they all have in common. One was pride in their work, and in the company they represent. Remember your staff are your biggest brand advocates, and focusing on helping them take pride will shine through in how they treat your customers.

4. Have fun, success will follow

If you aren’t having fun, you are doing it wrong. If you feel like getting up in the morning to work on your business is a chore, then it's time to try something else. If you are having a good time, there is a far greater chance a positive, innovative atmosphere will be nurtured and your business will fluorish. A smile and a joke can go a long way, so be quick to see the lighter side of life.

5. Rip it up and start again

If you are an entrepreneur and your first venture isn’t a success, welcome to the club! Every successful businessperson has experienced a few failures along the way – the important thing is how you learn from them. Don’t allow yourself to get disheartened by a setback or two, instead dust yourself off and work out what went wrong. Then you can find the positives, analyse where you can improve, rip it up and start again.


I am sure the reader can think of case studies from their own experience of life to illustrate the  four fundamental principles: justice (fairness), mutual respect (love and consideration), stewardship (trusteeship) and honesty (truthfulness) and their application to stakeholders. employees, providers of finance, customers, suppliers, community and owners to achieve business success.

Here I offer three case studies of business success I am familiar with.

Ian's 30 minute talk will take in entrepreneurship case studies large and small, public and private
You can found out more on his website

 - the why and the how
a midland success story
business planning
the Midland Quarry story -
human values in business - trust
- connecting education with business
the Studio college -


 SHIRLEY PRICE Who is Shirley Price?  

Shirley Price is a leader in Womens Health and wellbeing.  Along with Robert Tisserand she took essential oils use into hospitals and helped establish aromatherapy as a profession.

Lifetime achievement

Many congratulations to Shirley Price on receiving a Lifetime Achievement Award from
the Alliance of International Aromatherapists (AIA), USA on 30th September 2011.

Well known to IFPA members through her teaching, products and books (including
Practical Aromatherapy, The Aromatherapy workbook, and Aromatherapy for Health
Professionals), Shirley has been a major force in UK aromatherapy for almost 4
decades, continually working to raise the professions profile and promote good practice.

She trained with Eve Taylor, Elizabeth Jones and Arnoud Taylor and later, with her
husband len, founded the Shirley Price International College and Shirley Price
professional Aromatherapy (since 1998 under new ownership).  She also helped
establish several UK aromatherapy bodies including the ISPA and IFA and the
Aromatherapy Trades Council.

The AIA noted Shirley Price's determination to source and sell only genuine essential oils,
to develop high quality professionalo education, and to encourage unity among
professional associations.  They also highlighted her development of Swiss Reflex
therapy; her involvement in clinical work on burns and on Parkinsons disease; and her
worldwide teaching and lecturing.



 Ethics among shareholders, owners, directors and management are a necessary element for companies to balance the rights and interests of all stakeholders involved.

Berkshire Hathaway Inc


Coca Cola

Intercontinental hotels



Reed Elsevier


We come now to consideration of the individual psychological and habitual landscape.  In this short guide I provide only a few notes and pointers as to where the reader might want to look for more information.

We are in the realm of need and mood.  If you pick up any newspaper you can see that our concerns centre around birth, life and death.  The two most dramatic events of our lives are perhaps our birth and death.  In our lives on average we and the earth we live on make our way around the Sun 80 times (a year) while the earth rotates and the sun rises and sets 365 times (a year).  Our and our planets travel around the sun gives us the four seasons.  The Moon does not take exactly one month to travel around the earth but its close - on average 29.5 days.

The brain is the most complex invention in the universe and gives us the unparalled ability to think.  It is easy to become very confused when confronted with the workings of the human mind which is still not fully understood.

Habits are important.  Particularly in Business.  You want customers to get into the habit of dealing with you and your organisation.

 We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, therefore, is not an act but a habit. (Aristotle)

In life we can get some guidance from the medieval writings and visionary illustrations of St Hildegard.  I will leave this to those who wish to explore this further.

1 Amor saeculi Material Love Amor caelestis Heavenly love
2 petulentia Petulance Disciplina Discipline
3 Joculatrix Love of entertainment Verecundia Love of Simplicity
4 obduratio Hard heartedness Misericordia Compassion
5 Ignavia Cowardice, resignation Divinia victoria Gods victory
6 Ira Anger, criminality Patientia Tranquility
7 Inepta laetitia Inappropriate Mirth Gemitus ad deum Yearning for God
8 Ingluvies ventri Gluttony Abstinentia Abstinence
9 Acerbitas Bitterness of heart Vera largitas Generosity
10 Impietas Wickedness. Infamy Pietas Devotion
11 Fallacitas Lying Veritas Truth
12 Contentio Contention Pax Peace
13 Infelicitas Unhappiness Beatitudo Blessedness
14 Immoderatio Immoderation, anarchy Discretio Discretion, moderation
15 Perditio Doom Salvatio animarum Salvation
16 Superbia Arrogance Humilitas Humility
17 Invidia Envy Charitas Charity
18 Inanis gloria Thirst for glory Timor domini Reverence for God
19 Inobedientia Disobedience Obedentia Obedience
20 Infidelitas Lack of faith Fides Faith
21 Desparatio Despair Spes Hope
22 Luxuria Obscenity Castitas Chastity
23 Injusticia Injustice Justitia Justice
24 Torpor Lethargy Fortitudo Fortitude
25 Oblivio Oblivion Sanctitas Holiness
26 Inconstantia Instability Constantia Stability
27 Cura terrenorum Concern for worldly goods Caeleste desiderum Heavenly desire
28 Obstantio Obstinacy Compunctio cordis remores, compunction
29 Cupiditas Craving Contemptus mundi Letting go
30 Discordia Discord Concordia Concord
31 Scurrilitas Scurrility Reverentia Reverence 
32 Vagatio Vagabondage Stabilitas Stability
33 Maleficium Occultism Cultus dei Dedication to god
34 Avaritia Avarice Sufficientia Satisfaction
35 Tristia saeculi Melancholy Caeleste gaudium Heavenly joy

You might like to think of emotion as a balance the body strikes between vice and virtue according to the internal and external circumstances perceived. Today computor science is giving us remakable insights in human emotion and its role in the brain.  This can help us know ourselves and know others.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights


Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,
Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people,
Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law,
Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations,
Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,
Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms,

Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge,
Now, Therefore THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.

Article 1.

  • All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Article 2.

  • Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.

Article 3.

  • Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.

Article 4.

  • No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.

Article 5.

  • No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Article 6.

  • Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.

Article 7.

  • All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.

Article 8.

  • Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.

Article 9.

  • No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.

Article 10.

  • Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.

Article 11.

  • (1) Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence.
  • (2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed.

Article 12.

  • No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.

Article 13.

  • (1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state.
  • (2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.

Article 14.

  • (1) Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.
  • (2) This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

Article 15.

  • (1) Everyone has the right to a nationality.
  • (2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality.

Article 16.

  • (1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.
  • (2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.
  • (3) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.

Article 17.

  • (1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others.
  • (2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.

Article 18.

  • Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.

Article 19.

  • Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.

Article 20.

  • (1) Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.
  • (2) No one may be compelled to belong to an association.

Article 21.

  • (1) Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives.
  • (2) Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country.
  • (3) The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.

Article 22.

  • Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.

Article 23.

  • (1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment.
  • (2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work.
  • (3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection.
  • (4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.

Article 24.

  • Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.

Article 25.

  • (1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.
  • (2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection.

Article 26.

  • (1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.
  • (2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.
  • (3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.

Article 27.

  • (1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.
  • (2) Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.

Article 28.

  • Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.

Article 29.

  • (1) Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible.
  • (2) In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society.
  • (3) These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

Article 30.

  • Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.



Brain Science





"In business we need to be hard headed not hard hearted." Ian Brealey

"Human values for business are absolutes.  Human values for spirituality are relatives (lying between two absolutes of habits of vice and virtue.  Human values for business success combine business and spirituality.  In politics and company direction we call it democracy.  Democracy is not tyranny of the leadership and not mob rule it lies between these two absolutes, a precarious living balance that is tested day to day."


 "Human values for business are absolutes.  Human values for spirituality are relatives (lying between two absolutes of habits of vice and virtue.  Human values for business success combine business and spirituality.  Success can come to those with wildly divergent spirituality but a spirituality of some kind.  Humanism is a spirituality - a belief.  In politics and company direction we call this combination of human values democracy.  Democracy is not tyranny of the leadership and not assertive mob rule it lies between these two absolutes, a precarious living balance that is tested day to day.  Democracy rests on compassion having at its heart a belief that government of a nation or the smallest business enterprise exists to maintain and improve the condition of the people within its scope, not just its leader or owner.  Democracy relies on pride and patriotism.  Democracy depends on the truthfulness, integrity, objectivity, competance, diligence, on trust and the love of those it serves." Ian Brealey

No comments:

Post a Comment