Tuesday, 31 July 2012

Every wondered what a chemotype was?

B: When referring to essential oils, chemotypes or chemo-forms it means that morphologically identical single species or variety (taxon) can be found possessing different essential oil compositions. For example In North America there are four chemotypes of the wild growing Mentha canadensis L. (2n=96). They are Type 1, oils rich in pulegone and menthone, Type 2, oils rich in cis-and trans-isopulegones, Type 3, oils rich in linalool and Type 4, oils rich in 1,8-cineole and acyclic monoterpenes. However, the compositions of oils of each chemotype are rarely the same. For example Type 1 oils contain varied amounts of pulegone and menthone , sometimes pulegone is the major component and sometimes menthone is the major component;nevertheless, this chemotype relates to the biosynthetic pathway responsible for creating the essential oil composition. The same is true for the other three chemotypes and their representative pathways.
By the way this is a simple group of chemotypes found with M. canadensis. Many other members of the Lamiaceae family can possess more than four chemotypes. Also chemotypes abound in the Asteraceae family 

C:  here is a great explanation of chemotype on wiki: http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemotype . Most of it, along with B's great explanation, is over my head, but the following passage from it makes good commonsense to me:

"Because chemotypes are defined only by the most abundant secondary metabolite, they may have little practical meaning as a group of organisms sharing the same trait. Individuals of one chemotype may have vastly different chemical profiles, varying in the abundance of kind of the next most abundant chemical. This means two individuals of the same chemotype could have different impacts on herbivores, pollinators, or resistance to pests. A study by Ken Keefover-Ring and colleagues in 2008 cautioned that, "...this can be a very qualitative assessment of an individual's chemical profile, under which may be hiding significant chemical diversity."[1]"

B:  In the literature a number of reports can be found that refer to the existence of many chemotypes based on the existence of a major component independent of its functional group or its interrelationship with the other components in the oil. This is unfortunate because it causes incorrect interpretation of chemotypic form existence. Remember chemotypes developed strictly for the taxon's survival whether it be to protect it from predators,including herbivores, insects, bacteria and fungi or to act as an attractant for pollinators or fruit eaters to disperse its seeds(not for herbaceous plants but shrubs and trees). The determining factor for characterization of a chemotype is the closeness of the biosynthetic pathway. Another example of the existence of a single chemotype is Hyssopus officinalis which is rich in pinocarvone, pinocamphone and isopinocamphone all of which are closely related from a biosynthetic standpoint. Some oils possess the major components in the following order: isopinocamphone>pinocamphone>pinocarvone while other oils are found suchas pinocamphone>isopinocamphone>pinocarvone or Pinocarvone >pinocamphone >isopinocamphone etc. These are all actually a single chemotype with the expected variance amongst biosynthetically related components.
The existence of a single set of compounds such as alcohols, ketones, aldehydes etc. is not a point of differentiation in an oil to designate a chemotype

 B: Chris, yes it is an over simplification of the chemotype term. All Lavandula angustifolia cultivars are of the same chemotype irrespective of which cultivar, because to the best of my knowledge there have not been any chemoypic forms of L. angustifolia or L .x intermedia found.The formation of linalyl acetate from linalool is literally one biosynthetic step from linalool which is the tertiary alcohol produced as the first characterizing step in the pathway from the diphosphate precursor in the Lavandula genus.However, chemotypes have been found in other Lavandula species but not in lavender or the hybrid lavandin. 

M:  Chris - Did you know the concept of chemotypes was and Aussie idea?

Baker & Smith back in the early 1900's discovered it while working on some of our Eucalyptus species. There are lots of examples within the Family Myrtaceae:

Euc. dives CT cineole & CT piperitone
Melaleuca quinquinervia CT cineole (Niaouli), CT Nerolidol/Linalool (Nerolina) & CT Viridiflorol (MQV)
Melaleuca teritifolia CT cineole, CT citral (a beautiful lemon tea tree)

Shirley Price Skincare - masques to aromatic oil

Educational videos from EO companies

Shirley Price




Sunday, 29 July 2012

Essential oil uses - Perfumery


Essential oil composition - lavenders

Material review, composition of commercial lavenders

linalool, linalyl acetate the principal constituents.


 Robert P. Adams and Tonya Yanke, Biology Department, Baylor University

Clinical trials - health anxiety and sub clinical depression


Notes - fatty acids


Fatty acids are important sources of fuel because, when metabolized, they yield large quantities of ATP. Many cell types can use either glucose or fatty acids for this purpose. In particular, heart and skeletal muscle prefer fatty acids. The brain cannot use fatty acids as a source of fuel; it relies on glucose or ketone bodies.

Herbalism - Symphytum officinale L. (Comfrey) roots -


comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) roots contain the liver toxic lycopsamine

Essential oils do not contain alkaloids.  Alkaoids however find medical uses in herbalism.






Ian Brealey

Good Health DVD - Facial massage

Introduction to Sp

The 3 item DVD set


Facial massage


Natural Product communications


Essential oils research

If you are a student aromatherapist interested in furthering your knowledge or covering the research section of the syllabus this is a good resource.  You can register as an individual member and have access to the archive of article abstracts free of charge. These are well worth a browse.

Ian Brealey

Boswellia carterii (Frankincense) oil - chemistry


Commiphora myrrha (Myrhh) oil - chemistry


Essential oils - therapeutic properties

The general therapeutic properties attributed to each of the functional groups contained in essential oils is set out in Franchomme & Penoel 2001 p107-131. This is described and expanded by Price 2011 which helpfully is not only in english but also available on the Kindle so very accessible. Franchomme & Penoel associate certain properties with the esters, alcohols etc taking into account the electronegative/positive nature of the molecules coupled with their polar/apolar properties and this serves as a useful general guide. The oils have several effects reflecting the diversity of their constituents.

We certainly are understanding better how the body utilises essential oil constituents. the neutralisation of infection for example besides a direct effect on the germ may involve a direct chemical effect on the body tissues enabling them to preserve cellular chemical communications and integrity and so withstand microbial toxins and dampen inflammation. Because microbes affect a diverse range of body tissues from the gall bladder to the brain this preservative action against the chemical effects of microbes and their toxins consequently translates into a wide range of actions. 

Boswellia carterii (Frankincense) oil and Commiphora myrhha (Myrhh) oils - How and why?
For example - Wound healing with Myrrh and Frankincense in an Aloe Vera gel. "The next day I used a 3% blend of Myrrh and Frankincense in an Aloe Vera gel. I picked Myrrh for its anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, good for wound qualities, and Frankincense for its analgesic, cicatrizing, immuno-stimulant properties....the skin healed perfectly. Now you cannot even tell he had a gaping hole on the side of his neck, right by his carotid." Saloni Molhatra  www.purearomatherapy.com

Ian Brealey

Friday, 27 July 2012

Natural beauty range - ingredients and labels

Footcare - ingredients and labels

Aloe Vera - gel range ingredients and labels


Cosmetics - make your own with Jan Benham

Want to Make Your Own Cosmetics? It’s easier than you think!
by Jan Benham FFHT, MIFPA

Cosmetics are substances used to enhance the appearance or odour of the human body. They are generally mixtures of chemical compounds, some being derived from natural sources, many being synthetic.
In the U.S., the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) which regulates cosmetics, defines cosmetics as "intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions."
Definition from Wikipedia, 2012
My own journey into making cosmetics began back in 1982, as an Aromatherapist and Holistic Health Practitioner; I wanted to be able to mix essential oils not just into carrier oils but also unscented creams and lotions that were free from petroleum by-products and parabens.

They were just not available at that time, so began a life long research that resulted in two books: ``The Creamy Craft of Cosmetic Making``, 1996 and ``The Baby Boomers Beauty Bible``, 2004. At around the same time back in 1995, I also started teaching courses on how to make cosmetics at the Institute of Aromatherapy in Toronto, Canada.

The courses have grown to such an extent that the original cosmetic making courses have developed into a comprehensive cosmetic making diploma course which includes the making of cold pressed soap, makeup (foundation, lipsticks, eye shadows etc), natural perfume and a full range of skin, hair and body care products.

So why make your own Cosmetics?  
·         There are so many people around with allergies, perhaps you are one of those people? With making your own cosmetics you will know exactly what is in them.
·         By using only pure essential oils, natural colourants such as, infused carrot root oil, micas and oxides, herbal extracts and pure natural vegetable oils, such as jojoba and coconut. You can create cosmetics that are safe, environmentally friendly and pure.
·         You do not need to test your products on animals therefore; by making your own cosmetics you do not support the testing on animals that many pharmaceutical companies do.

·         Furthermore, you will also realize huge monetary savings by not purchasing expensive department store brands. The average woman in the UK spends £500 a year buying makeup, 25% of those women spend in the £1000’s. This makes the business of supplying customers with natural alternatives a sure success.

Imagine a healthy and youthful complexion for yourself, family and friends.
Imagine launching a new business selling online, at craft fairs and markets.
Imagine expanding your existing practice, selling your own range of natural products made from scratch.

Today I am giving you a recipe for making 100% natural lipsticks

I wanted to start with lipsticks, as lipsticks are something that we ingest and a person who wears lipstick daily will ingest a couple of kilograms in their lifetime. Lipsticks are usually coloured with FC&D dyes and have so many chemicals added its not funny!

Here is a natural alternative:
Beeswax 3gms
Candelilla wax (a natural plant wax) 5gms
Shea butter 5gms
Jojoba oil 20gms
Castor oil 20gms
Vitamin E 1 capsule

Melt the above ingredients in a small heat resistant glass measuring jug placed in boiling water
(double boiler)

When completely melted, add the colourants (I suggest to use one of the recipes below to start with) and mix well.
Pour into lip balm tubes, small makeup pots or a lipstick mould.
Allow to harden in the refrigerator for ½ hour before use.

This recipe base is enough to make 8 -12 lipsticks depending on the size of the pot or tube

Here are three lipstick colours to choose from:

1.      Cinnamon Girl lipstick - 2 tsp. Sienna mica, ¼ tsp red oxide and ¼ tsp zinc oxide. Grind together in a coffee grinder or a mortal and pestle.
2.      Chocolate kisses lipstick – melt a small piece of dark chocolate along with the base and add ½ tsp. Dark brown oxide, ½ tsp Zinc oxide (ground together) plus 10 drops of spearmint organic essential oil.
3.      Passion Lipstick - 2 tsp of Very Coral mica, ¼ tsp red oxide, ¼ Titanium dioxide (ground together).

Lipsticks, moisture cream and soaps made by Jan using all natural ingredients.

We offer CPD FHT and IFPA accredited courses in Holistic skin care and Cosmetic making!

Wednesday, 25 July 2012

Aromatherapy skincare - products and ranges

Guide to Shirley Price Aromatherapy Skincare

Products and ranges

5601 Aloe vera gel ALOE VERA
5602 Aloe and seaweed gel ALOE VERA
5603 Deodorising footcream FOOTCARE
5604 Exfoliating footcream FOOTCARE
5605 Foot reflex cream FOOTCARE
5606 Peppermint gel FOOTCARE GEL
5607 Foot reflex cream base FOOTCARE
5608 Relaxing foot cream FOOTCARE
5609 Warming foot cream FOOTCARE

5610 arnica gel GEL
5611 borage gel GEL
5612 clear aloe gel GEL
5613 lavender gel GEL
5614 muscle and joints gel GEL
5615 neroli gel GEL
5616 rejuvenating rose gel GEL
5617 tea tree gel GEL
5618 vitamin E gel GEL
5619 almond and sandalwood cream CREAM
5620 aloe vera cream CREAM
5621 anticellulite cream CREAM
5622 arnica cream CREAM
5623 borage cream CREAM
5624 calendula cream CREAM
5625 chamomile cream CREAM
5626 comfrey cream CREAM
5627 echinachea cream CREAM
5628 evening primrose cream CREAM
5629 exfoliating foot cream CREAM
5630 frankincense cream CREAM
5631 hypericum cream CREAM
5632 tea tree cream CREAM
5633 vitamin e cream CREAM
5634 cleansing cream CLASSIC ROUTINE
5635 cleansing milk CLASSIC ROUTINE
5636 toning lotion CLASSIC ROUTINE
5637 pretty serum CLASSIC ROUTINE
5638 moisture lotion CLASSIC ROUTINE
5639 moisture cream CLASSIC ROUTINE
5640 superlight eyecream CLASSIC ROUTINE
5641 night cream CLASSIC ROUTINE
5642 natural beauty night cream NATURAL BEAUTY
5643 Avocado cream base CLASSIC BASE
5644 carrot oil cream base CLASSIC BASE
5645 white lotion parabens free VEGAN BASE
5646 moisture cream parabens free VEGAN BASE
5647 Moisturising honey masque  MASQUE
5648 minute gel masque MASQUE
5649 Cypress exfoliating Cream mask MASQUE
5650 Face off masque MASQUE
5651 Natural Beauty Facewash NATURAL BEAUTY
5652 Natural Beauty Facial treat rejuvenator  NATURAL BEAUTY
5653 Hand and body lotion CLASSIC ROUTINE
5654 jasmine aromatic oil NATURAL BEAUTY
5655 neroli aromatic oil NATURAL BEAUTY
5656 rose aromatic oil NATURAL BEAUTY
5657 Natural Beauty OLEA Cleansing Cream MOISTURISERS
5658 Natural Beauty 'Hydrating' Moisture Cream MOISTURISERS
5659 Classic Moisture cream MOISTURISERS
5660 Natural Beauty 'Nourishing' Moisture Cream MOISTURISERS
5661 Special A Clear Skin Moisture Cream MOISTURISERS
5662 Special E Dry skin moisture cream  MOISTURISERS
5663 Scar care moisture cream MOISTURISERS
5664 Post epilation moisture cream  MOISTURISERS
5665 Special S Airways Cream MOISTURISERS
5666 Visible veins moisture cream  MOISTURISERS
5667 Natural Beauty Lip Balm Organic BALMS
5668 Natural Beauty After bath lotion  BALMS
5669 Natural Beauty After shave balm  BALMS
5670 Natural Beauty After Sun milk  BALMS
5671 Peppermint balm  BALMS
5672 Scalp tonic HAIR
5673 Natural Beauty Shampoo for dry hair HAIR
5674 Natural Beauty Shampoo for greasy hair HAIR
5675 Natural Beauty Shampoo for normal hair HAIR
5676 Natural beauty Hair conditioner HAIR
5677 Headlice repellant conditioner HAIR
5678 Headlice shampoo HAIR
5679 Lavender & Geranium shower gel HAIR
5680 Natural Body butter base  BASES
5681 Natural Bodywash Wash base  BASES
5682 Natural Shampoo base  BASES
5683 Natural Cream base  BASES
5684 Olea Natural Hair conditioner base  BASES
5685 Organic Liquid Castille soap base  BASES
5686 Natural Lotion Base  BASES
5687 Natural Melt and Pour Soap  BASES
5688 Natural Night cream BASES
5689 Organic Lip balm BASES

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