Thursday, 22 March 2012

Organic vs non organic

Besides the many other British schools and colleges over 6000 aromatherapists particularly nurses and midwives have received their training through our college over the years. The training here is very quiet by comparison with the nineties but it still progresses with a gifted class going through this year.

Our policy is to encourage use of organic oils in massage as herbicides and pesticides do come across in the distillation. There is no doubt about that. There is a simple division between organic and non organic oils. Would anyone want to inhale pesticide residues? I dont think so. In many cases I find there is little difference in price between buying organic and non organic oils.

I wont have isolates on the place or in the oils however not everything is within our control. For example certain non organic oils like lavender are widely and systematically standardised with isolates. I suspect MLM companies may not draw this to the attention of their associates when they describe their oil as being of therapeutic grade! That is not to say a synthetic linalool or a non organic lavandin for that matter when inhaled does not have a relaxing effect of use for example in recovering patients post surgery. The fact is that cancer patients and possibly their carers too have a heightened sense of smell and can be disgusted by a strongly smelling oil however its possible to provide organic french lavender with little odour.

Consuming oils which have not been deterpenated except under medical supervision in an emergency seems rather unwise to me. A slice of lemon in hot water is an excellent way of enjoying the essential oil. see Maury M Marguerite Maury's Guide to Aromatherapy (1961) p 230.  "Q. What are the essences used and their provenance?  Are they easily obtained?  A. It is also important to know whether an essence has to contain terpenes or has to be deterpenised.  An essence for external use can contain terpenes, but for internal use they must be removed at all cost."

I see Rachel Herz has a new book out on the theme of 'disgusting' and has another interesting book on olfactory cognition in the pipeline. 

Robert Tisserand has online seminars upcoming on these themes.
April 11 Dermal absorption
April 18 Skin health & disease
April 25 Allergic reactions
May 23 Phototoxicity
May 30 Skin cancer & ageing
June 6 Healing the skin  

the book Aromadermatology is a good read in preparation for the seminars.
kind regards

Ian Brealey          

Wednesday, 21 March 2012

CPD - Robert Tisserand Online Seminars

A new series of 6 one-hour webinars about essential oils and the skin 

April 11 Dermal absorption
April 18 Skin health & disease
April 25 Allergic reactions
May 23 Phototoxicity
May 30 Skin cancer & ageing
June 6 Healing the skin

Each session begins at 1.30 pm Pacific Standard Time (9.30 pm in the UK)


I like Sue Clarkes book which is available on the kindle so handy to pass round in class.  Chemistry without feedback from the practitioners and researchers on the constituents of the functional groups can lead you astray. GCMS does give us only the top 15 constituents and some properties ascribed to essential oils by the Congress of Grasse depend on constituents which may be there in only tiny amounts in the pure oil.  This applies particularly on the mental and mood effects involving particular smell receptors. 

As Valnet wisely said "There is nothing less scientific than to deny the evidence of our own eyes!"  That is the value of Rosemary Caddy's book the essential oils in Colour which correlates the chemistry and the effect on body systems with the feedback from the practicioners and researchers on uses.   

You can get totally blinded by science.  For example on deterpenated oils.  Some conclude as researchers used deterpenated oils there is no need for farm fresh pure oils at all.  Ok but then you look at the use the researchers were researching.  Eg Rovestri was researching psychiatric uses of the oils.  The terpenes were no of use to him for his purpose and so he used deterpenated oils.  Science is about measurement and thats valuable and of service to practitioners. 

Aromatherapists do like Joy Bowles book as it links specifically to the research. You may know the aromaresearch linking the chemistry, research and uses is a fast moving field in the UK so its as well to follow the updates particularly on Robert Tisserands site.

Ian Brealey

Monday, 19 March 2012

Shirley Price Aromatherapy Videos

Aromatherapy: Aromatherapy is the systematic, controlled use of essential oils to promote and enhance the health and well being of the individual.

Introduction to Shirley Price Aromatherapy
The 10 step aromatherapy massage
Swiss reflex


Australian essential oils

The Paperbark Co. specialises in growing, steam distilling and marketing Australian essential oils, in particular Western Australian oils.


Thursday, 15 March 2012

Aromatherapy for cats - Plant families - Cats go mad for mint

As a fun aside on my earlier post on the lamiaceae and rutaceae...............

 I remember as a child the family siamese cat going mad for mint in the garden. Nepata Cataria is a member of the Lamiaceae. The nepatalactone is thought to give cats a sense of euphoria. Not aware of a similar effect on humans though of course we do love our mints!  Essential oils should not be used on children and pets as a matter of routine. If used then do seek the guidance of a local aromatherapist who will advise on the safe use of the oils.  Nothing wrong with inhalation. As few as 20 molecules are enough to have an effect on the emotions.  Horses will turn their heads away from an essential oil they dont need.  However essential oils should not be used on small pets.  Dogs cannot eliminate tea tree oil in particular and a drop or so on a poorly paw will induce a state of toxicosis which is very distressing for both the dog and the owner. 

here is Robert Tisserands article

Actually this started out a fun post but it turns out catnip is an excellent mosquito and tick repellant better than DEET so suitable for those seeking DEETfree solutions.  It is expensive to cultivate however.
here is a source of the oil

Earlier post

You can get a long way in your aromatherapy learning by remembering these plants belong to just two of the most highly advanced plant families

Lavender Lavandula angustifolia Mill. flowers
Clary sage Salvia sclarea L. herb
Marjoram Origanum majorana L. herb
Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis L. herb
Peppermint Mentha x piperita L. herb
Basil Ocimum basilicum L. herb
Melissa Melissa officinalis herb
Thyme Thymus vulgaris ct thymol herb
Patchouli Pogostemon cablin Benth. leaves
Orange, bitter Citrus aurantium L. fruit
Bergamot Citrus bergamia Risso. fruit
Lemon Citrus limon (L.) Burm. fruit

As a safety tip remember Lamiaceae flowers from which the oil is distilled are designed to ATTRACT insects and animals. The Lamiaceae chemical components are designed to bind to sense receptors in the nose and via the cranial nerve stimulate the emotions creating a feeling of wellness. The essential oils found in RUTACEAE are in the outer skin which we peel off to eat the fleshy fruit.  The outer skin is designed to keep insects away until the fruit is ready to drop.  Therefore use the Rutaceae with caution on the skin. The Rutaceae chemical components, principally Citral, an aldehyde, tend to irritate the trigeminal nerve creating a feeling of stimulation.  The trigeminal nerve also gives us the impression of an oil being warming (ginger) or cooling (peppermint).

Other plant families
What is the important medical property of the Asteraceae, associated with a constituent produced in the distillation process rather than present in the plant...anti-in........ This is a plant associated with what energy, yin or yang in chinese medicine and with which planetary body in folklore? why is anti-in.......... important as a medical property?

Which important plant family was unknown until the discovery of australia?


By contrast with what plant family have we had an important relationship with for 40 million years?

Which member is best left to enjoy at home?

Which wood is burned on honeymoon by middle eastern brides to relax their husbands?


Which member of the Zingiberaceae is useful in hospital setting for relieving nausea so getting and keeping the medication down and for digestion generally?


Ian Brealey

Wednesday, 14 March 2012

Shirley Price Chamomile Eyecare - the Stage One Research

Ian Brealey 23.3.12 - Shirley Price Aromatherapy teams up with NPARU to launch a stage one trial on herbal eyedrops.  Enquiries about this project to me please at  Manufacturers of herbal products may have plenty of testimonials from individual clients who have bought them and found relief from their symptoms.  We certainly do.  The Shirley Price Chamomile Eyecare has been a popular product for over 30 years.  Yet we spend no money on promoting them but instead rely on word of mouth recommendation.  Can we do science on this?  The lab cannot recreate all the elements of the situation in which someone buys a herbal product.  For example people are usually anxious about their symptoms and have lived with them for a while getting more anxious about their symptoms which a volunteer in the lab is not. A non toxic self treatment itself will apparently both address a need in this respect in real hayfever sufferers and have some physiological basis in fact in that pollen grains are washed from the eye by the sterile solution removing the irritant pollen grains. Nor will a volunteer have a real energy imbalance to address for example by physical means like acupressure.  In hayfever's case relief has evidently been experienced by individuals by acupressure of the arm in the form of a simple pebble worn in an armband. The non-physiological action of such relief is not capable of measurement.  However it is worth giving the science a try where a product has been highly recommended to see what is going on physiologically.  Symptoms of seasonal hayfever are an ideal indication to put to trial as it clearly depends in most cases on an external irritant in the form of pollen grains in the eye and sinuses.

Researchers at the National Pollen and Aerobiology Research Unit.

Professor Roy Kennedy (left) has kindly agreed to lead a research project into the Shirley Price Chamomile Eyecare.  Highly diluted Chamomile essential oil and chamomile water in a 1/2500 dilution has traditional use in compresses for inflamed eyes as do other essential oils.  Researchers will be measuring corneal temperature and tryptase production to test the intriguing effectiveness of the Shirley Price Chamomile eyedrop formulation in the Laboratory with a pool of 40-50 volunteers.  Consumers worldwide give the eyedrops 5 stars as feedback on consumer websites which is evidence of their effectiveness.

Now a project has been launched to find out why and test alternative formulations.  Herbal eyedrops provide an effective means of first line treatment of tired and irritated eyes and for hayfever relief.  Chlorophenicol eyedrops while effective in the treatment of infected eyes carry serious side effects in a few cases and so GPs are reluctant to prescribe them as a routine first line of eye treatment.  At the same time there has been a reluctance by GPs to recommend herbal eyedrops due to a lack of research as to their effectiveness.  This research project will aim to provide scientific examination of the effectiveness of the Shirley Price Chamomile Eyecare in the relief of hayfever.
Ian Brealey said "Unexplained medical symptoms are associated with anxiety and depression in 70% of cases so herbal remedies besides any pharmacological effect they may have may serve to reduce anxiety and stress.  There is therefore ethical sense in using herbal eyedrops that can be shown to be effective."    The development of the Shirley Price eyecare is described by Shirley Price on page 200 of her book Aromatherapy for Health Professionals which is available in a new 2011 edition.

Ocular allergies includes a group of diseases that affect the eye surfaces (conjunctival mucosa or palpebral skin) and are commonly associated to immune-mediated inflammatory reactions of these structures.   There are four types of ocular allergy however allergic conjunctivitis is the most common clinical form representing up to 98% of all cases of ocular allergy. 
Allergic conjunctivitis is a type-I hypersensitivity reaction and the immune system's response to allergen exposure can be divided into two phases. The first is immediate hypersensitivity or the early phase reaction that occurs within 15 minutes of exposure to the allergen. The main symptoms of early phase response allergic conjunctivitis are itching along with lacrimation (tearing), red eye, foreign body sensation and edema (swelling).      During the early phase reaction, chemical mediators are released by mast cells including histamine, tryptase and chymase.   

The second, or late phase reaction can occur 4-6 hours after the disappearance of the first phase symptoms and can last for days or even weeks but not every allergen exposure leads onto the second phase. In the late phase reaction, tissues become red and swollen due to an influx of a variety of inflammatory cells to the affected area.  

The proposed study on the effect of chamomile would focus on the early phase reactions to allergen exposure as it would expected that an eye wash or eye drop would provide relief for the early phase symptoms by washing allergens from the eye or diluting the allergens.  The possibility that Chamomile may have an antihistamine effect would also be investigated.     

The aim would be to investigate the efficacy of Shirley Price Chamomile Eye Care as an eye wash and eye drop compared with saline solution (or possibly artificial tears) and another over the counter product marketed as an eye wash e.g. Optrex Multi Action eye wash or Optrex Itchy Eye Drops as the ingredients for both are Witch Hazel and Purified Water.  The marketing for Optrex says ‘Optrex itchy eye drops, which contain natural plant extracts, help relieve irritation caused by pollen.   They work by flushing out allergens such as pollens that cause hayfever.   Formulated with purified water and natural plant extracts, these drops gently cleanse the eye surface to wash pollen and other allergenic particles away, providing gentle relief from the irritation they cause to allergic eyes. They are suitable for everyday use.’

The different eye washes would be applied to the eyes following sensitization to grass pollen and samples taken of the resulting tears over a period of time.   These would be analysed for levels of allergen using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques.  Samples would also be analysed for levels of a chemical mediator e.g. tryptase.   It would be expected that if the Eye Care product has an anti-inflammatory effect that there would be a significant decrease in the level the chemical mediator eg tryptase within a short period following sensitization and when compared to the results from the other treatments.

 The ocular surface temperature would be measured using specialist equipment before and after treatment as an additional indicator of an anti – inflammatory response.   The equipment uses infrared imaging, providing a non-invasive and very accurate method of temperature measurement. It would be expected that if the Eye Care has an anti-inflammatory effect that there would be a significant decrease in ocular surface temperature within a short period following sensitization and when compared to the results from the other treatments.  

The participants would be asked to rank their eye symptoms (itchy, watery, sore and swollen eyes) on a likert scale.


Stage 1.       Application for Ethical approval – would be completed over the summer months
Costs would include full study design, application for NHS Ethical approval, assisting with the application to the MHRA, engagement of clinician at Worcester Hospital as Principal Investigator,   engagement of independent statistician.
This would take approximately 2 to 4 months and would involve presentation to an NHS ethics committee.

Ian Brealey

Tuesday, 13 March 2012

Everyday Aromatherapy - care for mental health needs

Next aromatherapy training exhibitions

See you at the Pulse Mental Health Forum, London May 23

See you at Primary Care 2012, Birmingham NEC May 23, 24 Stand H174a

Did you know?

  • Mental ill health costs the economy £105bn a year - more than the entire NHS budget1
  • Mental health accounts for a quarter of all GP consultations1
  • People with severe mental illness live some 15 years less than their peers1
  • 400,000 people in the UK may have undiagnosed dementia2
  • Depression is associated with 67 per cent increased mortality from cardiovascular disease3
  • 70 per cent of people with medically unexplained symptoms also suffer depression and anxiety disorders4
1 - Practical Commissioning, October 2011, pg 19: Sean Duggan, chief executive of the Centre for Mental Health
2 - Department of Health campaign on dementia
3 - No Health Without Public Mental Health, Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2010
4 - Medically unexplained symptoms positive practice guide, produced by the improving access to psychological therapies (IAPT) programme, Department of Health

Why the butterfly? Psyche comes from the Greek word for soul or butterfly.  A butterfly can be found on the Royal College of Psychiatrists logo. The motto of the college is Let Wisdom Guide.  We use butterfly images to illustrate our course notes to improve learning.

Everyday Aromatherapy - care for mental health needs, introductory workshop Imperial College London May 19 with Ian Brealey et al.  Book tickets    More Courses


Saturday, 10 March 2012

Groundwork - Needs. There are many ways of considering human needs. In nursing one successful way is the Model proposed by Maslow (1970)

AsteraceaeCalendula officinalis, Picture by Ian Brealey


In order to maintain their physical and mental health people have certain essential requirements or needs that must be met.  If an individual experiences a deficit in their needs they experience emotions and are usually motivated to take action towards the attainment of these needs. If all our needs are fulfilled we experience the highest emotion of all - human love, kindness and affection. 

Maslow depicted a pyramid starting with physiological needs and peaking in self actualisation.

Where a person has difficulty meeting their needs this may be experienced in various ways according to the need...for example nutrition and fluids for the person having difficulty in meeting their needs this may be experienced as hunger, thirst, discomfort, excessive intake, anorexia, physical diffulty, nausea, anxiety.

Persons with mental health problems may be unwilling, unable, not aware or have a distorted awareness of their physiological needs

Physiological needs

Specific requirements
Nutrition and fluids
Environmental stimulation
Physical activity

Safety and security needs

Specific requirements:
Feeling safe
Protection from harm
Predictability and order
Knowing what is going to happen
Trust and reliance on others
Being in control
Maintain identity
Acceptance and belonging
Esteem needs
Cognitive needs
Aesthetic needs
Self actualisation

Acceptance and belonging

Specific requirements:
Love and affection
Warm communicating relationships
Group companionship

Esteem needs

Specific requirements:
Positive self worth
Autnomy and control
Sense of mastery and competance
Recognition from others
Appreciation by others
Personal status

Cognitive needs

Specific requirements:
Self awareness and insight
Problem solving

Aesthetic needs

Specific requirements:
Personal expression
Recreational interests
Meaningful activity
Spiritual needs

Self actualisation needs

Specific requirements:
Drive for self improvement
Personal growth
Potential for change


1.  Maslow (1970)

2.  Ironbar and Hooper (1989) Chapter 1 The Practice of Mental Health Nursing, 1.1  Human needs and the role of the mental health nurse

The photograph above is of calendula.  The leaves are not edible but the yellow florets are and can be placed in salad or enjoyed as a tea. The marigold will keep flowering so there is no problem harvesting the flowers. Placed on a sunny kitchen shelf in a bottle of sunflower oil you get an excellent oil for the family's dry or problem skin patches. You can spot the family resemblance with the Sunflower. Other useful Asteraceae are the chamomiles.  

Personal note.  In 2007 I had the great pleasure of working with the New York agents of an autistic savant called Daniel Tammet.  Daniel has authored two best selling books.  His description of his experience of emotion, memory and learning in colour and feelings provides a fascinating insight into brain function and reality as experienced both by normal and autistic people.  Wikipedia

There is a great deal of interest in aromatherapy worldwide and British trained educators are in demand from the USA to China.  In the area of mental health there is great interest in complementary treatments particularly ones which improve cognition. 

The Royal College of Nursing (RCN) provides guidelines for nurses wanting to use aromatherapy.  The guidelines for using aromatherapy issued by the RCN include the following:
Supervised practice
Anatomy, physiology, pathology and pharmacology
Practical and theoretical examination
Holistic approach
Supervised clinical practice
Counselling, communication and self development skills training
Appropriately qualified teachers

Supplements and cognitive function

Helichrysum angustifolium,  Picture by Ian Brealey  


 After 24 months of supplementation with folic acid and vitamin B12 elderly adults were found to have improvements in cognitive function, immediate recall and short-term memory.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Jan;95(1):194-203. Epub 2011 Dec 14.

Oral folic acid and vitamin B-12 supplementation to prevent cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults with depressive symptoms--the Beyond Ageing Project: a randomized controlled trial.


Centre for Mental Health Research, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.



Evidence remains unclear as to whether folic acid (FA) and vitamin B-12 supplementation is effective in reducing depressive symptoms.


The objective was to determine whether oral FA + vitamin B-12 supplementation prevented cognitive decline in a cohort of community-dwelling older adults with elevated psychological distress.


A randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a completely crossed 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design comprising daily oral 400 μg FA + 100 μg vitamin B-12 supplementation (compared with placebo), physical activity promotion, and depression literacy with comparator control interventions for reducing depressive symptoms was conducted in 900 adults aged 60-74 y with elevated psychological distress (Kessler Distress 10-Scale; scores >15). The 2-y intervention was delivered in 10 modules via mail with concurrent telephone tracking calls. Main outcome measures examined change in cognitive functioning at 12 and 24 mo by using the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status-Modified (TICS-M) and the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (processing speed); the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly was administered at 24 mo.


FA + vitamin B-12 improved the TICS-M total (P = 0.032; effect size d = 0.17), TICS-M immediate (P = 0.046; d = 0.15), and TICS-M delayed recall (P = 0.013; effect size d = 0.18) scores at 24 mo in comparison with placebo. No significant changes were evident in orientation, attention, semantic memory, processing speed, or informant reports.


Long-term supplementation of daily oral 400 μg FA + 100 μg vitamin B-12 promotes improvement in cognitive functioning after 24 mo, particularly in immediate and delayed memory performance. This trial was registered at as NCT00214682.

 wit from the dfh friday facts.................
At a medical convention, a noted internist arises to announce that he has discovered a new miracle antibiotic.
"What does it cure?" asks a member of the audience.
"Nothing we don't already have a drug for," the internist replies.
"Well, what's so miraculous about it?"
"One of the side effects is short-term memory loss. Several of my patients have paid my bill three times already!" 

Friday, 9 March 2012

Research - Antibiofilm effects of essential oils

Essential oils have antibacterial properties.  However one of the truely exciting thing about essential oils is their ability to work with antibacterial treatments to preserve their effectiveness. Perhaps also reduce the dose and duration so cutting down on costly medication and side effects.

This post describes some of the research on how this works.

Antibiofilm activity of selected plant essential oils and their major components.


Institute of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Immunology, University of L6di, Poland.


The aim of the study was to examine the antibiofilm activity of selected essential oils (EO): Lavandula angustifblia (LEO), Melaleuca alternifolia (TTO), Melissa officinalis (MEO) and some of their major constituents: linalool, linalyl acetate, alpha-terpineol, terpinen-4-ol. Biofilms were formed by Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and Escherichia coli NCTC 8196 on the surface of medical biomaterials (urinary catheter, infusion tube and surgical mesh). TTC reduction assay was used for the evaluation of mature biofilm eradication from these surfaces. Moreover, time-dependent eradication ofbiofilms preformed in polystyrene 96-well culture microplates was examined and expressed as minimal biofilm eradication concentration (evaluated by MTT reduction assay). TTO, alpha-terpineol and terpinen-4-ol as well as MEO, showed stronger anti-biofilm activity than LEO and linalool or linalyl acetate. Among the biomaterials tested, surgical mesh was the surface most prone to persistent colonization since biofilms formed on it, both by S. aureus and E. coli, were difficult to destroy. The killing rate studies of S. aureus biofilm treated with TTO, LEO, MEO and some of their constituents revealed that partial (50%) destruction of 24-h-old biofilms (MBEC50) was achieved by the concentration 4-8 x MIC after 1 h, whereas 2-4 x MIC was enough to obtain 90% reduction in biomass metabolic activity (MBEC90) after just 4 h of treatment. A similar dose-dependent effect was observed for E. coli biofilm which, however, was more susceptible to the action of phytochemicals than the biofilms of S. aureus. It is noteworthy that an evident decrease in biofilm cells metabolic activity does not always lead to their total destruction and eradication.

 Effects of Tea Tree Oil on Biofilm Formation

Effects of a topical essential oil-containing formulation
on biofilm-forming coagulase-negative staphylococci

Inhibitory Effect of Biocides on the Viable Masses and Matrices of
Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms

Effects of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil on Staphylococcus aureus in biofilms
and stationary growth phase


ASLEEP - with Lavender and Sweet Marjoram

Lavender               MSDS  |    Wikipedia   |  Pubmed
Sweet Marjoram   MSDS   |   Wikipedia   |  Pubmed

Oregano (Origanum vulgaris) is known as wild marjoram and used much is salads.  Sweet Marjoram (Origanum majoriana). The two plants are closely related.


Research - aromatherapy for post operative nausea

Provided they are used in diluted form and in accordance with the label instructions aromatherapy products present little hazard to health.
Essential oils and essences are mixtures of chemicals.  The distillation process means that the sizes of the chemicals is limited to a molecular weight of some 400 and do not include heavier elements like chlorine.  Essential oils are therefore safe.  However even hydrocarbons should be used with care and in accordance with the labels instructions.  If used on the skin a simple test should be done as some one in a thousand people are sensitive to essential oils and redness can result.  This disappears if the essential oil is washed off.  Pregnancy is a red flag for all chemicals.
A material safety data sheet (MSDS), safety data sheet (SDS), or product safety data sheet (PSDS) is intended to provide workers and emergency personnel with procedures for handling or working with that substance in a safe manner, and includes information such as physical data (melting point, boiling point, flash point etc.), toxicity, health effects, first aid, reactivity, storage, disposal, protective equipment, and spill-handling procedures. MSDS formats can vary from source to source within a country depending on national requirements.
SDSs are a widely used system for cataloging information on chemicals, chemical compounds and chemical mixtures. SDS information may include instructions for the safe use and potential hazards associated with a particular material or product. These datasheets can be found anywhere where chemicals are being used.
There is also a duty to properly label substances on the basis of physico-chemical, health and/or environmental risk. Labels can include hazard symbols such as the European Union Standard black diagonal cross on an orange background, used to denote a harmful substance.
In the UK, the Chemicals (Hazard Information and Packaging for Supply) Regulations 2002 - known as CHIP Regulations - impose duties upon suppliers, and importers into the EU, of hazardous materials.The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations govern the use of hazardous substances in the workplace in the UK and specifically require an assessment of the use of a substance.Regulation 12 requires that an employer provides employees with information, instruction and training for people exposed to hazardous substances.


Organic Essential Oils

Angelica Root(Angelica archangelica)
Aniseed(Pimpinella anisum)
Basil ct linalool(Ocimum basilicum)
Basil ct methylchavicol(Ocimum basilicum)
Benzoin(Styrax benzoin)
Bergamot(Citrus bergamia)
Cajuput(Melaleuca leucadendron)
Caraway(Carum carvi)
Cardamom(Elettaria cardamomum)
Carrotseed(Daucus carota)
Cedarwood Atlas(Cedrus atlantica)
Chamomile German(Matricaria recutita)
Chamomile Moroccan(Ormenis mixta)
Chamomile Roman(Chamaemelum nobile)
Cinnamon Bark(Cinnamomum zeylanicum)
Cinnamon Leaf(Cinnamomum zeylanicum)
Cistus(Cistus labdaniferus)
Citronella(Cymbopogon winterianus)
Clove Bud(Syzgium aromaticum)
Clary Sage(Salvia sclarea)
Coriander(Coriandrum sativum)
Cypress(Cupressus sempervirens)
Dill(Anethum graveolens)
Eucalyptus(Eucalyptus citriodora)
Eucalyptus(Eucalyptus globulus)
Eucalyptus(Eucalyptus Radiata)
Eucalyptus(Eucalyptus smithii)
Fennel(Foeniculum vulgare)
Frankincense(Boswellia carteri)
Geranium(Pelargonium graveolens)
GeraniumBourbon(Pelargonium graveolens)
Ginger(Zingiber officinalis)
Grapefruit(Citrus paradisi)
Immortelle(Helichrysum italicum)
Hyssop(Hyssopus decumbens)
Inula(Inula graveolens)
Juniper(Juniperus communis)
Lavandin(Lavendula Burnati)
LavenderFine AOC(Lavandula angustifolia)
Lavender(Lavandula officinalis)
Lavender Spike(Lavendula latifolia)
Lemon(Citrus limon)
Lemongrass(Cymbopogon citratus)
Lime(Citrus aurantifolia)
Lovage(Levisticum officinale)
May Chang(Litsea cubeba citrata)
Mandarin(Citrus reticulata)
Marjoram sweet(Origanum majorana)
Melissa(Melissa officinalis)
Myrtle Red(Myrtus communis)
Neroli(Citrus aurantium var amara)
Niaouli(Melaleuca viridiflora)
Nutmeg(Myristica fragrans)
Orange bitter(Citrus aurantium var amara)
Orange sweet(Citrus aurantium var sinensis)
Oregano(Origanum vulgare)
Palmarosa(Cymbopogon martinii)
Patchouli(Pogostemon cablin)
Pepper Black(Piper nigrum)
Peppermint(Mentha x piperita)
Petitgrain(Citrus aurantium var amara)
Pine(Pinus sylvestris)
Ravensara(Ravensara aromatica)
Rose Otto(Rosa damascena)
Rosemary Verbenone(Rosemarinus officianalis)
Rosemary Cineol(Rosmanius officinalis)
Sage(Salvia officinalis)
Spikenard(Nardostachys jatamansi)
Star anise(Illicum verum hook)
Tagetes(Tagetes minuta)
Tea Tree(Melaleuca alternifolia)
Thyme sweet(Thymus zygis)
Vetiver(Vetiveria zizanoides)
Wintergreen(Gaultheria fragrantissima)
Ylang ylang extra(Cananga odorata)
Ylang ylang complete(Cananga odorata)
Ylang ylang 1(Cananga odorata)
Ylang ylang 2(Cananga odorata)
Ylang Ylang 3(Cananga odorata)


Essential oils of Ginger, Peppermint and Cardomon, essential oils on Wikipedia

Ginger           |  MSDS   |    Wikipedia    |  Pubmed
Peppermint    |  MSDS   |    Wikipedia    |  Pubmed
Cardomom     |  MSDS   |    Wikipedia    |  Pubmed

Aromatherapy as Treatment for Postoperative Nausea: A Randomized Trial.


From the *Department of Anesthesia, Carolinas Medical Center University, Charlotte, NC;


Background:Postoperative nausea (PON) is a common complication of anesthesia and surgery. Antiemetic medication for higher-risk patients may reduce but does not reliably prevent PON. We examined aromatherapy as a treatment for patients experiencing PON after ambulatory surgery. Our primary hypothesis was that in comparison with inhaling a placebo, PON will be reduced significantly by aromatherapy with (1) essential oil of ginger, (2) a blend of essential oils of ginger, spearmint, peppermint, and cardamom, or (3) isopropyl alcohol. Our secondary hypothesis was that the effectiveness of aromatherapy will depend upon the agent used.Methods:A randomized trial of aromatherapy with patients who reported nausea in the postanesthesia care unit was conducted at one ambulatory surgical center. Eligibility criteria were adult, able to give consent, and no history of coagulation problems or allergy to the aromatherapy agents. Before surgery, demographic and risk factors were collected. Patients with a nausea level of 1 to 3 on a verbal descriptive scale (0-3) received a gauze pad saturated with a randomly chosen aromatherapy agent and were told to inhale deeply 3 times; nausea (0-3) was then measured again in 5 minutes. Prophylactic and postnausea antiemetics were given as ordered by physicians or as requested by the patient.Results:A total of 1151 subjects were screened for inclusion; 303 subjects reporting nausea were enrolled (26.3%), and 301 meeting protocol were analyzed (26.2%). The change in nausea level was significant for the blend (P < 0.001) and ginger (P = 0.002) versus saline but not for alcohol (P < 0.76). The number of antiemetic medications requested after aromatherapy was also significantly reduced with ginger or blend aromatherapy versus saline (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001, respectively).Conclusion:The hypothesis that aromatherapy would be effective as a treatment for PON was supported. On the basis of our results, future research further evaluating aromatherapy is warranted. Aromatherapy is promising as an inexpensive, noninvasive treatment for PON that can be administered and controlled by patients as needed.

Aromatherapy serves as an effective and inexpensive treatment for postoperative nausea, according to a studypublished in the March issue of Anesthesia & Analgesia

Researchers administered three types of aromatherapy to postoperative patients who reported nausea: essential oil of ginger; a blend of essential oils of ginger, spearmint, peppermint, and cardamom; and isopropyl alcohol. The ginger oil and blend both proved effective in reducing patient nausea, but the alcohol did not.

Aromatherapy has become the focus of an increasing number of studies on postoperative nausea due to its noninvasiveness and low cost.

An earlier study which used peppermint alone

To determine whether aromatherapy can reduce postoperative nausea, the investigators studied 33 ambulatory surgery patients who complained of nausea in the PACU. After indicating the severity of nausea on a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS), subjects received randomized aromatherapy with isopropyl alcohol, oil of peppermint, or saline (placebo). The vapors were inhaled deeply through the nose from scented gauze pads held directly beneath the patients' nostrils and exhaled slowly through the mouth. Two and 5 minutes later, the subjects rated their nausea on the VAS. Overall nausea scores decreased from 60.6 +/- 4.3 mm (mean +/- SE) before aromatherapy to 43.1 +/- 4.9 mm 2 minutes after aromatherapy (P <.005), and to 28.0 +/- 4.6 mm 5 minutes after aromatherapy (P < 10(-6)). Nausea scores did not differ between the treatments at any time. Only 52% of the patients required conventional intravenous (IV) antiemetic therapy during their PACU stay. Overall satisfaction with postoperative nausea management was 86.9 +/- 4.1 mm and was independent of the treatment group. Aromatherapy effectively reduced the perceived severity of postoperative nausea. The fact that a saline "placebo" was as effective as alcohol or peppermint suggests that the beneficial effect may be related more to controlled breathing patterns than to the actual aroma inhaled.