Tuesday, 31 January 2012

Clinical Aromatherapy - Cancer Care

Marianne Tavares

"Integrating Clinical Aromatherapy in Specialist Palliative Care"

More links to aromatherapy in palliative care


Monday, 23 January 2012

The Shirley Price Aromatherapy Factory in Hinckley, England

The Shirley Price Aromatherapy gang in the factory.  Chloe, Gill, Sue, Kelly, Rosie.  Thanks guys.


Shirley Price Aromatherapy Diploma - how the hours work out

Aromatherapy Syllabus

Anatomy, Physiology, Pathology

Classroom or distance learning 65 hours
Self directed study 150 hours

Practical applied aromatherapy

Therapeutic Massage
Practical Blending
Classroom  80 hours (includes 60 hours therapeutic massage)
Self directed study 120 hours

Theory of aromatherapy

Classroom or distance learning  70 hours
Self directed study 100 hours

Therapeutic relationships

Classroom   7 hours
Self directed study 10 hours

Professional studies

Legislation, conduct, ethics

Classroom   7 hours
Self directed study 20 hours

Reflective practice

Classroom   7 hours
Self directed study 20 hours

Understanding research

Classroom or distance learning   7 hours
Self directed study 10 hours


Minimum contact hours                                 94 hours

Maximum distance learning hours                156 hours

Total taught hours                                          250 hours

Minimum self directed study                          450 hours

through reading, case studies, essay, practice

Shirley Price Aromatherapy

Contact hours on taught diploma                   175 hours

Minimum distance learning and assignments      75 hours
Including anatomy and physiology, pathology    65 hours


'Appy days with ShirleyPrice.co.uk on Android

23rd / January / 2012 By: Ian Brealey
Now on Android.  Distributors keep in touch with Shirley Price product and training news and therapists can order on the go from Amazon with free next day delivery on the go with our new Android app!
Shirley Price customers now have easy access on the move, with our brand new Android app.  
Available now for FREE on Android marketplace, the ShirleyPrice.co.uk Android app allows shop owners to quickly view products and Shirley Price training news and media.  This latest ShirleyPrice.co.uk feature release means distributors can stay tuned in to their online business.  The android app can also be downloaded to a laptop or ipad. Setup couldn’t be more straight forward: simply get the app from Android Marketplace and install it. All vital data is accessible any time any place.

Ian Brealey, from the UK’s leading online aromatherapy provider comments on the company’s first development in mobile:
“The Android app is the first of our mobile releases for 2012. It’s a neat and useful application which keeps our users in 40 countries worldwide up to date, which can only make life easier. Another project in the mobile space includes full mCommerce:   allowing customers to have a mobile optimised version of ShirleyPrice.co.uk for mobile visitors, which we know are on the up.”
The FREE ShirleyPrice.co.uk Android app is available for download now on Android marketplace. Simply search for Shirley Price in the marketplace, or click here to download the app onto your smart phone direct.
For more information and support on the ShirleyPrice.co.uk Android app free to contact us on info@shirleypricearomatherapy.com call 01455615466.

SP Valentines day ad in Salon magazine

Sunday, 22 January 2012

Nutrition -Revise Type 2 Diabetes


Read more

Vegetarian Society


Aromatherapy - further reading

Document references

  1. Sixth Report. Complementary and Alternative Medicine, House of Lords Select Committee on Science and Technology, November 2000
  2. Complementary medicine: information pack for primary care groups, Dept of Health, June 2000
  3. Aromatherapy Council
  4. Perry N, Perry E; Aromatherapy in the management of psychiatric disorders: clinical and neuropharmacological perspectives. CNS Drugs. 2006;20(4):257-80. [abstract]
  5. Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Graham JE, Malarkey WB, et al; Olfactory influences on mood and autonomic, endocrine, and immune function. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2008 Apr;33(3):328-39. [abstract]
  6. Howard S, Hughes BM; Expectancies, not aroma, explain impact of lavender aromatherapy on psychophysiological indices of relaxation in young healthy women. Br J Health Psychol. 2008 Nov;13(Pt 4):603-17. Epub 2007 Sep 7. [abstract]
  7. Thomas KJ, Nicholl JP, Coleman P; Use and expenditure on complementary medicine in England: a population based survey. Complement Ther Med. 2001 Mar;9(1):2-11. [abstract]
  8. Lewith GT, Hyland M, Gray SF; Attitudes to and use of complementary medicine among physicians in the United Kingdom. Complement Ther Med. 2001 Sep;9(3):167-72. [abstract]
  9. Thomas KJ, Coleman P, Nicholl JP; Trends in access to complementary or alternative medicines via primary care in England: 1995-2001 results from a follow-up national survey. Fam Pract. 2003 Oct;20(5):575-7. [abstract]
  10. Safe Alternative Medicine. Expert advice on alternative medicine. Accessed February 2009
  11. Henley DV, Lipson N, Korach KS, et al; Prepubertal gynecomastia linked to lavender and tea tree oils. N Engl J Med. 2007 Feb 1;356(5):479-85. [abstract]
  12. Attia Ltd; response to gynecomastia allegations: Prepubertal gynaecomastia linked to Lavender and Tea Tree Oil (2007); Call for the Journal of New England Medicine to publish a retraction
  13. Trattner A, David M, Lazarov A; Occupational contact dermatitis due to essential oils. Contact Dermatitis. 2008 May;58(5):282-4. [abstract]
  14. Wye L, Sharp D, Shaw A; The impact of NHS based primary care complementary therapy services on health BMC Complement Altern Med. 2009 Mar 6;9:5. [abstract]
  15. Smith CA, Collins CT, Cyna AM, et al; Complementary and alternative therapies for pain management in labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(2):CD003521. [abstract]
  16. Burns E, Zobbi V, Panzeri D, et al; Aromatherapy in childbirth: a pilot randomised controlled trial. BJOG. 2007 Jul;114(7):838-44. Epub 2007 May 16. [abstract]
  17. van der Watt G, Janca A; Aromatherapy in nursing and mental health care. Contemp Nurse. 2008 Aug;30(1):69-75. [abstract]
  18. van der Watt G, Laugharne J, Janca A; Complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of anxiety and depression. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2008 Jan;21(1):37-42. [abstract]
  19. Thorgrimsen L, Spector A, Wiles A, et al; Aroma therapy for dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(3):CD003150. [abstract]
  20. Nguyen QA, Paton C; The use of aromatherapy to treat behavioural problems in dementia. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2008 Apr;23(4):337-46. [abstract]
  21. Cooke B, Ernst E; Aromatherapy: a systematic review. Br J Gen Pract. 2000 Jun;50(455):493-6. [abstract]
  22. Kyle G, Marks-Maran D; Focus group interviews: how aromatherapists feel about changing their practice through undertaking a randomised controlled trial? Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2008 Aug;14(3):204-11. Epub 2008 Mar 6. [abstract]
  23. Hay IC, Jamieson M, Ormerod AD; Randomized trial of aromatherapy. Successful treatment for alopecia areata. Arch Dermatol. 1998 Nov;134(11):1349-52. [abstract]
  24. Delamere FM, Sladden MM, Dobbins HM, et al; Interventions for alopecia areata. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Apr 16;(2):CD004413. [abstract]
  25. van den Biggelaar FJ, Smolders J, Jansen JF; Complementary and alternative medicine in alopecia areata. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2010;11(1):11-20. doi: 10.2165/11530040-000000000-00000. [abstract]
  26. Esmonde L, Long AF; Complementary therapy use by persons with multiple sclerosis: benefits and research priorities. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2008 Aug;14(3):176-84. Epub 2008 May 7. [abstract]

Happy New Year

Thomas Avery Garran 

Peter Holmes


Friday, 20 January 2012

Revise - Module One 10 step aromatherapy massage treatment

Module One - Therapeutic massage includes a ten step aromatherapy massage, introduction to aromatherapy blending and ends with a session to make your own cleansers, toners, lotions and creams.

Module One runs monthly.  Next Module One - February 2012.  Call 01455615466.

Watch All

ten step Shirley Price Aromatherapy Massage
Sp1 Watch   Facial cleanse
Sp2 Watch   Back massage
Sp3 Watch   Back of legs Massage
Sp4 Watch   Front of legs massage
Sp5 Watch
Sp6 Watch  Arms and hands massage
Sp7 Watch  Shoulders and facial massage
Sp8 Watch  Scalp Massage
Sp9 Watch
Sp10 Watch Treatment and untowelling

Our teaching principle is 'see one, do one, teach one'.  Module One runs monthly.  Kindly call the college secretary Rosie Brandrick on 01455 615466 to book your place.

Swiss reflex


Tuesday, 17 January 2012

Shirley Price Aromatherapy Diploma 16-20 January Hinckley

Day One

AM Introduction to Aromatherapy, definition, history, effects, storage, basic properties, uses of essential oils, carrier oils properties. Homework

PM Practical, Female model.  Aromatherapy blending practical exercise one, practical exercise two. Aromatherapy facial cleanse and tone on a model. making toners with hydrolats for dry and oily skin. Restorative moisturiser cream.

A highlight for me was for the four students each making the same blend and then comparing their impressions of their own and others blends and the success of differant blending techniques. very motivating.  

Nice observable introduction to essential oils, energy and behavioural kinesiology (though we did not mention the words!).

Day Two

AM Theory Handouts History, Essential Oils, Aromatic Blending, Materia Aromatica profiles. A&P Theory.

PM Practical Male model.  Towels and screens, A&P practical. Back Massage - effleurage (effleurer - to touch lightly) pettrisage. Shoulder Massage. Revise cleanse and tone.

Todays highlight was using yesterdays blend in massage.  We are building to a full 2 hour aromatherapy massage treatment with cleanse, facepack, tone and moisturise.

Day Three

Theory AM. Blending exercise. Therapeutic cross reference chart. Carrier oils. PM Practical scalp massage meridian lines and points. Back of legs massage. Using the day one massage blend. Putting it together. Cleanse and tone. Back massage. Back of legs massage. Turnover. Moisturise. Shoulder massage. Scalp massage.

Day Four 

Theory AM.  The aromatherapy consultation.  identifying conditions.  Tips for practice.  PM Practical Front of leg massage,  Foot massage. Putting it all together in a 10 step aromatherapy treatment.

Day Five

Theory AM.  PM Practical.  10 step aromatherapy treatment.  In the final practical session you make your own Cleanser, Toners, White Lotion and cream.  Ingredients Lannette wax, Fractionated cooconut oil.  Distilled water.  Grapefruit extract.  Course Completion certificates.

Module One runs monthly.  Next  Module One in February, This class Module Two in  March.

Sunday, 15 January 2012

Aromatherapy - treat or treatment?

"Even if we cant always see the science we can see the results - increasingly we are seeing the science.

A more natural diet, a more natural exercise, a more natural health.  By working with our environment we can extend our lives (and our enjoyment of them) by as much as 10 years.

Its as simple as that."


Revise - Conditions benefitting from qualified aromatherapy treatments

This is 40 of the more common conditions covered by the aromatherapy syllabus and so of interest to students. The graduate list is almost endless! I like the blend recipes in Valerie Worwoods books. The link has a descriptor of the condition and the link to more information. Aromatherapists tend to work in an NHS setting in hospices and with GP referrals so students should have an early awareness of the language of the professionals they will be serving and to be able to discuss their clients symptoms. Often early symptoms like gout or pruritis can be early warning of more severe trouble ahead requiring radical diet and exercise revision now which the aromatherapist can support. Usually diet revision means a more natural diet so aromatherapists can advise on how to make that more palatable for the client and their family.


Here are some of the more common conditions benefitting from aromatherapy treatments
Arthritis – osteo
Arthritis – rheumatoid
Athlete’s foot
Colds and flu
Cold sore
Indigestion (Dyspepsia)
Insect bite/sting
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Raynaud’s Disease
Stressstress management
Varicose veins

Acne is a chronic skin condition that affects most people at some point during their life. It causes spots to develop on the skin, usually on the face, back and chest. The symptoms of acne can be mild, moderate or severe.
Acne is thought to be caused by changes in hormones that are triggered during puberty.
Acne can cause great distress and have an adverse effect on a person’s quality of life and self-esteem.
Therefore, healthcare professionals recognise that the condition requires effective and sometimes aggressive treatment.

Alopecia is the medical term that describes a loss of hair and sometimes baldness.
Sometimes, hair loss is a side effect of the cancer treatment medicines that are used in chemotherapy. In these cases, hair loss is usually temporary. However, any type of hair loss can reduce confidence and self-esteem.

A period is when blood leaves the womb through the vagina. This happens about every 28 days. Girls most commonly start their periods around the age of 12.
It is normal for a female to not have any periods under the following circumstances:
When a girl has not yet gone through puberty.
When a woman is pregnant, breastfeeding or going through the menopause (usually at the age of 40 or older).
When a woman has had a hysterectomy (operation to remove the womb).
However, an absence of periods when they should normally occur, known as amenorrhoea, may indicate an underlying health problem or severe weight loss (see Causes). When there is amenorrhoea, ovulation (the release of eggs) does not occur.
Amenorrhoea may be categorised as either primary or secondary.

Arthritis is a common condition that causes pain and inflammation (swelling) of the joints and bones. The main symptoms of arthritis include:
restricted movements of the joints
inflammation and swelling
warmth and redness of the skin over the joint
In the UK, arthritis is a very common condition, affecting over 9 million people.
The most common forms of arthritis are:
The characteristics of these two conditions are discussed below. Other types of arthritis are listed in the box, below left.
What is osteoarthritis?
Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis in the UK, affecting an estimated 8.5 million people.
In people affected by osteoarthritis, the cartilage (connective tissue) between their bones gradually wastes away (degenerates), leading to painful rubbing of bone on bone in the joints. The most frequently affected joints are in the:
Osteoarthritis often develops in people who are over 50 years of age. However, it can develop at any age as a result of an injury or another joint-related condition.
The cause of osteoarthritis is not fully understood. One theory is that some people are genetically predisposed to developing osteoarthritis, which means that they have an increased likelihood of inheriting it from their parents. However, this theory has not yet been proven.
See the Health A-Z topic about Osteoarthritis for more information and advice about the condition.
Arthritis is a common condition that causes pain and inflammation (swelling) of the joints and bones. The main symptoms of arthritis include:
restricted movements of the joints
inflammation and swelling
warmth and redness of the skin over the joint
In the UK, arthritis is a very common condition, affecting over 9 million people.
The most common forms of arthritis are:
The characteristics of these two conditions are discussed below. Other types of arthritis are listed in the box, below left.

What is rheumatoid arthritis?
Rheumatoid arthritis is a more severe, but less common, form of arthritis than osteoarthritis. It occurs when the body's immune system attacks and destroys the affected joints, causing pain and swelling to occur. This can lead to a reduction in movement and the breakdown of bone and cartilage.
In the UK, rheumatoid arthritis affects around 400,000 people, and it often starts between 40 and 50 years of age. Women are three times more likely to be affected by the condition than men.
Rheumatoid arthritis is caused by a fault in the immune system (the body’s natural defence against illness and infection) that makes the body attack its own tissues. The fault may be inherited genetically (passed on from a family member).
See the Health A-Z topic about Rheumatoid arthritis for more information and advice about the condition.

Asthma is a long-term condition that can cause a cough, wheezing and breathlessness. The severity of the symptoms varies from person to person. Asthma can be controlled well in most people most of the time.
In the UK, 5.4 million people are currently receiving treatment for asthma. That is 1 in every 12 adults and 1 in every 11 children. Asthma in adults is more common in women than men.
If you are diagnosed with asthma as a child, the symptoms may disappear during your teenage years. However, asthma can return in adulthood. If childhood symptoms of asthma are moderate to severe, it is more likely that the condition will persist or return later in life. However, asthma does not only start in young people and can develop at any age.
The cause of asthma is not fully understood, but it is known that asthma often runs in families. You are more likely to have asthma if one or both of your parents has the condition.
Athlete’s foot is a very common condition. It is caused by a fungal infection that affects the skin on the feet.
Athlete’s foot is usually mild and often affects the skin between the toes, causing it to become red, flaky and itchy. The medical name for athlete’s foot is tinea pedis. Athlete’s foot is usually easy to treat with antifungal medication.

Bruises are bluish or purple-coloured patches that appear on the skin when tiny blood vessels, called capillaries, break or burst underneath. The blood from the capillaries leaks into the soft tissue under your skin, causing the discolouration. Over time this fades through shades of yellow or green.
Bruises often feel tender or swollen at first.

Catarrh is an excessive build-up of mucus in one of the airways or cavities of the body. It is usually found inside the nose, but it can also occur in the:
Catarrh is not a condition in itself, but a symptom of a condition such as:
the common cold or another infection
hay fever or other type of allergic rhinitis
non-allergic rhinitis (sensitivity to environmental triggers)
nasal polyps (fleshy swellings inside the nose)

Cellulite is a cosmetic problem caused by fatty deposits that form underneath the skin. It is not related to cellulitis.
Losing weight is the best way of dealing with cellulite.

Cellulitis is an infection of the deeper layers of the skin and the underlying tissue. The main symptom of cellulitis is the affected area of skin suddenly turning red, painful swollen and hot.
Cellulitis can have a wide range of causes, although it is usually caused by a type of bacteria called group A streptococcus.

Chilblains are small, itchy swellings on the skin that occur as a reaction to cold temperatures. They affect the body's extremities, such as the toes, fingers, heels, ears and nose. Chilblains are uncomfortable but can be prevented.
Chilblains can be:
acute (short-term), developing within 12-24 hours after exposure to the cold and getting better after one to two weeks if you keep warm
chronic, lasting for a minimum of five months a year for the past three years and causing persistent sores that can lead to scarring
One-third of Britons think flu is just a bad cold, but each year thousands of people die of complications following flu. Find out how colds and flu differ.
Colds and flu share some of the same symptoms (sneezing, coughing, sore throat), but are caused by different viruses. Flu can be much more serious than a cold.
If you're generally fit and healthy, you can usually manage the symptoms of a cold or flu yourself without seeing a doctor. Look after yourself by resting, drinking non-alcoholic fluids to avoid dehydration and avoiding strenuous activity. Painkillers such as ibuprofen or paracetamol can relieve aches and pains.
Some people need to take extra care as they're more at risk of serious chest complications, such as pneumonia and bronchitis. People over 65 are more at risk of complications. People under 65, including children, are more at risk of complications if they have: 
serious heart or chest complaints, including asthma
serious kidney disease or liver disease 
lowered immunity due to disease or treatment
Everyone in an at-risk group is eligible for a free flu vaccination. This is the best protection against the virus. Find out who is offered the flu jab.

Cold sores are small, blister-like lesions that usually appear around the mouth. They are caused by the herpes simplex viruses. The strain that usually causes them around the mouth is herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1).
In rare cases, cold sores can also be caused by the herpes simplex type 2 virus (HSV-2). This can happen as a result of having oral sex with a man or woman who has genital herpes.

Leg cramps are a common, annoying but usually harmless condition that cause sudden muscle pain in the leg. Leg cramps usually occur in the calf muscles below the knee, although they can affect any part of the leg.
In three out of four cases, leg cramps occur at night during sleep.

Cystitis is inflammation of the bladder. It's usually caused by an infection in the bladder, but can also be caused by irritation or damage (from friction during sex, for example).
Symptoms of cystitis are:
an urgent need to urinate often
pain or stinging when you urinate
Cystitis usually passes within a few days, or sometimes may need treatment with antibiotics.
Untreated bladder infections can cause kidney infections.

Depression is more than simply feeling unhappy or fed up for a few days.
We all go through spells of feeling down, but when you're depressed, you feel persistently sad for weeks or months rather than just a few days.
Some people still think that depression is trivial and not a genuine health condition. They're wrong. Depression is a real illness with real symptoms, and it's not a sign of weakness or something you can 'snap out of' by 'pulling yourself together'.
The good news is that with the right treatment and support, most people can make a full recovery from depression.

Diarrhoea is passing loose or watery faeces more than three times a day. It affects almost everyone from time to time and is usually nothing to worry about.
A common cause in both children and adults is gastroenteritis, an infection of the bowel. Gastroenteritis may be caused by:
a virus, such as a norovirus or rotavirus
bacteria, which is often found in contaminated food 
a parasite
See Diarrhoea - causes for more information.
Bouts of diarrhoea in adults may also be brought on by anxiety or drinking too much coffee or alcohol. Diarrhoea may also be a side effect of a medication.
Most women experience some form of period pain during their lifetime. The medical term for period pain is dysmenorrhoea. The pain caused by menstruation is usually felt in your lower abdominal area, but can also spread to your back and thighs.

Eczema is a condition that causes the skin to become itchy, red, dry and cracked. It is a long-term, or chronic, condition.
Atopic eczema, also known as atopic dermatitis, is the most common form of eczema. It mainly affects children, but can continue into adulthood.
Atopic eczema commonly occurs in areas with folds of skin such as:
behind the knees
on the front of the elbows
on the side of the neck
around the eyes and ears

A fever is a high temperature. As a general rule, in children, a temperature of over 37.5°C is a fever.
As a parent it can be very worrying if your child has a high temperature, however, it is very common and often clears up on its own.
A quick and easy way to find out if your child has a fever is to take their temperature using a thermometer.
Gout is a common type of arthritis. The symptoms of gout include painful swelling and inflammation in one or more of the joints. Gout usually affects the big toe, but it can develop in any joint in the body.

More than one in 5 people get headaches, making them one of the most common health complaints, but most are easily treated.
Most headaches aren’t serious and can be treated with pharmacy remedies and lifestyle changes, such as getting more rest and drinking enough fluids.

Known as the 'silent killer', high blood pressure rarely has obvious symptoms.
Around 30% of people in England have high blood pressure but many don't know it. If left untreated, high blood pressure increases your risk of a heart attack or stroke.
The only way of knowing there is a problem is to have your blood pressure measured
All adults should have their blood pressure checked at least every five years. If you haven’t had yours measured, or you don’t know what your blood pressure reading is, ask your GP to check it for you.

Low blood pressure, also known as hypotension, is where the blood pressure in your arteries is abnormally low.
It's usually the case that the lower your blood pressure, the healthier you are. 
Naturally low blood pressure is unlikely to cause any symptoms and is normally nothing to worry about. However, if your blood pressure drops too low, it can restrict the amount of blood flowing to your brain and other vital organs, which can cause fainting or dizziness and lightheadedness.  
See your GP if you experience any symptoms of low blood pressure and you are concerned.  
All adults should have their blood pressure checked at least every five years. If you haven't had yours measured or don't know what your reading is, ask your GP to check it.

Indigestion, also known as dyspepsia, is pain or discomfort in the upper abdomen (tummy).
If you have indigestion, you may experience a number of symptoms, including:
heartburn, a burning sensation that is caused by acid passing from the stomach into the oesophagus (gullet)
regurgitation (food coming back up from the stomach)
nausea (feeling sick)
vomiting (being sick)

Insect bites are puncture wounds caused by insects. In the UK, insects that bite include:
When an insect bites, it releases saliva that can cause:
inflammation (redness and swelling)
The symptoms of insect bites can vary depending on the type of insect and the sensitivity of the person who is bitten. For example, some people may have a small, itchy lump after they are bitten, which only lasts for a few hours. Others may develop a more serious reaction, such as blistering and a number of itchy, red lumps. See Insect bites - symptoms for more information.

Insomnia is difficulty getting to sleep or staying asleep for long enough to feel refreshed the next morning, even though you've had enough opportunity to sleep.
Most people have problems sleeping at some point in their life. It's thought that a third of people in the UK have bouts of insomnia. Insomnia tends to be more common in women and more likely to occur with age.
It's difficult to define what normal sleep is as everyone is different. Your age, lifestyle, environment and diet all play a part in influencing the amount of sleep you need. 
The most common symptoms of insomnia are:
difficulty falling asleep
waking up during the night
waking up early in the morning
feeling irritable and tired and finding it difficult to function during the day

Stress and anxiety are a common cause of insomnia, but it can also be caused by conditions such as depression,schizophrenia or asthma, some medications and alcohol or drug misuse. 

IBS (irritable bowel syndrome) is a common condition of the digestive system and can cause bouts of stomach cramps, bloating, diarrhoea and constipation.
There's no cure for IBS, but the symptoms can be relieved by changing your diet and lifestyle. Sometimes medication can help, too.
IBS isn't a dangerous condition. There's no obvious abnormality of the bowel, and, although it can feel uncomfortable, the condition poses no serious threat to your health. For example, it won't increase your chances of developing cancer or other bowel conditions.
The precise cause of IBS is unclear, but it may be triggered by stress, problems with your immune system or a problem with how the muscles of your gut squeeze food through your bowel.
The symptoms of IBS usually come on for the first time between the ages of 20 and 30. They're not usually continuous, but tend to come and go in bouts, often during times of stress or after eating certain foods.
The symptoms can vary from one person to another and be worse in some people than others.
But most people experience either diarrhoea or constipation or bouts of both, and sometimes notice mucus in their stools. It's also common to find that painful cramps ease after you've been to the toilet to open your bowels.
Laryngitis is inflammation of the larynx (voice box). Symptoms of laryngitis include:
loss of voice, and
sore throat.
The larynx
The larynx is a tube-like structure found at the entrance of the trachea (windpipe). The lump you can see at the front of your throat, commonly known as the Adam’s apple, is your larynx.
The larynx has three main functions:
It helps channel oxygen into your trachea when you breathe.
It acts like a valve, closing off the trachea when you swallow to prevent food or liquid entering your airways. 
It contains two membranes (the vocal cords) which vibrate as air passes through them, producing the sound of your voice.
Laryngitis causes these membranes to become inflamed. They cannot vibrate properly, which leads to the loss of voice associated with laryngitis.
Types of laryngitis
There are two main types of laryngitis:
Acute laryngitis, where symptoms do not last longer than three weeks.
Chronic laryngitis, where symptoms persist for longer than three weeks.

The menopause is sometimes known as the 'change of life' and is marked by the ending of menstruation (when a woman's periods stop).
A woman’s periods do not usually stop suddenly. They generally become less frequent, the odd period is missed and then they stop altogether.
When it happens
In the UK, the average age for a woman to reach the menopause is 52.
A woman is said to have reached the menopause once she has not had a period for one year. After this point, she can be described as post-menopausal.
If the menopause occurs in a woman who is under 45 years of age, it is known as premature menopause. It is estimated that premature menopause affects 1% of women under the age of 40 and 0.1% of women under the age of 30.
What happens?
During the time leading up to the menopause (perimenopause), the hormonal and biological changes that are associated with the menopause begin. As a result of these hormonal changes, many women experience both physical and emotional symptoms, such as hot flushes, night sweats and irritability (see Symptoms of menopausefor more information).
The menopause is the end of egg production (ovulation). This occurs as a result of falling levels of the female sex hormone oestrogen, which regulates a woman’s periods.

Heavy periods, also called menorrhagia, are when a woman loses an excessive amount of blood during several consecutive periods.
period is part of a woman's menstrual cycle. The menstrual cycle is the time from the first day of a woman’s period to the day before her next period. A period is a bleed from the womb (uterus) that is released through the vagina. It happens approximately every 28 days, although anywhere between 24 and 35 days is common.
Periods can begin when girls are between eight and 16 years of age, but they usually start around 12 years of age. They continue every month until the menopause (when a woman’s periods stop), which usually occurs between 45 and 55 years of age.
Menorrhagia is the medical name for heavy periods. Menorrhagia can occur by itself or in combination with other symptoms, such as menstrual pain (dysmenorrhoea).
Heavy bleeding does not necessarily mean there is anything seriously wrong, but it can affect a woman physically, emotionally and socially, and can cause disruption to everyday life. 

A migraine is a severe headache usually felt as a throbbing pain at the front or on one side of the head. Some people also have other symptoms, such as nausea and sensitivity to light.
Migraine is a common health condition, affecting about 15% of adults in the UK.
There are two types of migraine:
Migraine with aura is when you have a warning sign, known as aura, before the migraine begins. About a third of people with migraine have this. Warning signs may include visual problems (such as flashing lights) and stiffness in the neck, shoulders or limbs.
Migraine without aura 
For more information, see Migraine – symptoms.
There are five stages to a migraine although not everyone will experience all of these.

Neuralgia is a term that describes nerve pain. Postherpetic neuralgia is a nerve pain that occurs at the site of a previous attack of a condition called shingles (see below).
The pain of postherpetic neuralgia may be intense and can take the form of:
an ‘electric shock’
sensitivity of the skin in the affected area
Shingles is a condition that is caused by re-activation of the varicella-zoster virus, which lies dormant (inactive) in the nerves following a chickenpox infection earlier in life. The virus becomes active in two or three nerve roots and causes a flu-like illness.
Shingles can occur at any age but is more common in older people or those whose immune system has been weakened by medications such as steroids, or people havingchemotherapy.
Shingles most commonly affects the nerves of the chest and face but it can affect any nerve. Shingles usually causes pain and a rash on one side of the body only (unilateral). Sometimes, the pain develops before the rash.
In most cases, the rash and pain of shingles lasts two to four weeks. The rash is similar to the chickenpox rash, with small blisters that burst, heal and leave small scars on the skin. Postherpetic neuralgia occurs when the nerve pain that is caused by shingles continues for longer than three months after the rash has healed.
It is not possible to get shingles from someone with chickenpox. The varicella-zoster virus already exists inside the body and is re-activated. If you have grandchildren who have chickenpox, looking after them while they have the condition can actually boost your immunity. If you have shingles, it is possible for someone who has never had chickenpox to develop chickenpox, particularly if they come into direct contact with the rash.

Oedema is the medical term for fluid retention in the body.
It occurs when there is a build-up of fluid (mainly water) in the body's tissues, causing swelling to occur in the affected area.
As well as swelling or puffiness of the skin, oedema can cause:
skin discolouration
fluid-filled areas of skin that temporarily hold the imprint of your finger when pressed (known as pitting oedema)
aching, tender limbs
stiff joints
weight gain or weight loss
raised blood pressure and pulse rate
Oedema is often a symptom of an underlying condition. It can also be caused by a variety of factors such as high salt intake in the diet or being immobile for long periods of time (see below).
A common cause of fluid build-up in the tissues is a condition called lymphoedema. It occurs when the lymphatic system is damaged or disrupted.
The lymphatic system is a series of glands (lymph nodes) throughout the body. They are connected by a network of vessels, much like blood vessels. Fluid surrounding the body tissues normally drains from the tissues into the nearby lymph vessels to be transported away and emptied back into the blood.
If the lymphatic vessels are not working properly, for example because they are blocked, excess fluid cannot be reabsorbed and builds up in the tissues.

Psoriasis is a skin condition that causes red, flaky, crusty patches of skin covered with silvery scales. The condition is not infectious and most people are affected only in small patches on their body.

Psoriasis affects around 2% of people in the UK. It can start at any age, but most often develops between the ages of 11 and 45.

The severity of psoriasis varies greatly from person to person. For some people, it is just a minor irritation, but for others it has a major impact on their quality of life.

Psoriasis is a long-lasting (chronic) disease that can return at any time. There may be times when you have no symptoms or very mild symptoms, followed by times when the symptoms are severe.
There is no cure for psoriasis, but a range of treatments can improve symptoms and the appearance of the affected skin patches.

Raynaud’s disease is a common condition that affects the blood supply to certain parts of the body, usually the fingers and toes.
You may have heard of it referred to as Raynaud’s syndrome, Raynaud’s phenomenon or just Raynaud's.

Sciatica is the name given to any sort of pain that is caused by irritation or compression of the sciatic nerve.
The sciatic nerve is the longest nerve in your body. It runs from the back of your pelvis, through your buttocks, and all the way down both legs, ending at your feet.
When something compresses or irritates the sciatic nerve, it can cause a pain that radiates out from your lower back and travels down your leg to your calf. Sciatic pain can range from being mild to very painful.
A slipped disc is the most common identified cause of sciatica, but in some cases there is no obvious cause

Sinusitis is inflammation (swelling) of the lining of the sinuses, caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
The sinuses are small, air-filled cavities behind your cheekbones and forehead (see below). 
Sinusitis typically causes a high temperature, pain and tenderness in the face, and a blocked or runny nose.
It is a common condition and can affect people of any age.
Sprains and strains are a very common type of injury that affect the muscles and ligaments. Ligaments are strong bands of tissue around joints that connect one bone to another. They help to keep the bones together and stable. 
Symptoms of sprains and strains include:
swelling and inflammation
loss of movement in the affected body part
A sprain occurs when one or more of your ligaments have been stretched, twisted, or torn, usually as a result of excessive force being applied to a joint. The most common locations for a sprain to occur are:
the knee - which can become strained when a person turns quickly during sports or other physical activities
the ankle - which can become strained when walking or running on an uneven surface
the wrist - which can become strained when a person falls onto their hand
the thumb - which can become strained during intense and repetitive physical activity, such as playing a racquet sport
A strain occurs when the muscle fibres stretch or tear. They usually occur for one of two reasons:
when the muscle has been stretched beyond its limits
when the muscle has been forced to contract (shorten too quickly)
Strains can develop as the result of an accident, or during physical or sporting activities, such as running or playing football.
The most common types of strains are:
hamstring strains - the hamstrings are muscles that run down the back of the leg and are connected to the hip and knee joints
gastrocnemius and soleus strains - the gastrocnemius and soleus are the medical name for the muscles of the calf
quadriceps strains - the quadriceps are muscles located at the front of the thigh
lumbar strains - the lumbar muscles are found in the lower back
Stress is the feeling of being under too much mental or emotional pressure.
Pressure turns into stress when you feel unable to cope. People have different ways of reacting to stress, so a situation that feels stressful to one person may in fact be motivating to another.
Many of life’s demands can cause stress, especially work, relationships and money problems, and when you feel stressed, it can affect everything you do.
Read more about what causes stress.
Stress can affect how you feel, how you think, how you behave and how your body works. Sleeping problems, sweating, loss of appetite and difficulty concentrating are common signs of stress.
Managing stress
Stress is not itself an illness but it can cause serious illness if not tackled. It is important to recognise the symptoms of stress early.
This will help you figure out ways of coping and save you from adopting unhealthy coping methods, such as drinking or smoking.
Spotting the early signs of stress will also help prevent it worsening and potentially causing serious complications, such as high blood pressure, anxiety and depression. Read more about the health complications of stress.
While there is little you can do to prevent stress, there are many things you can do to manage stress more effectively, such as learning how to relax, taking regular exercise and adopting good time management techniques.

Sunburn is skin damage caused by ultraviolet (UV) rays. Too much exposure to UV light can make your skin red and painful. This may later lead to peeling or blistering. 
Sources of UV light include: 
tanning beds
phototherapy lamps – these are used in light therapy to treat conditions such as jaundice in newborn babies (yellowing of the skin)
Sunburn often occurs when the sun’s rays are intense. However, there is also a risk of getting burned by the sun in other weather conditions. For example, light reflecting off snow can also cause sunburn. A cloudy sky or breeze may make you feel cooler, but sunlight can still get through and damage your skin.

Most women experience occasional bouts of a common yeast infection known as vaginal thrush.
It causes itching, irritation and swelling of the vagina and surrounding area, sometimes with a creamy white cottage cheese-like discharge.
Vaginal thrush is fairly harmless but it can be uncomfortable and it can keep coming back, which is known as recurrent thrush.

Tonsillitis is an infection of the tonsils. The tonsils are two small glands found at the back of the throat behind the tongue. The function of these glands is not entirely clear, but research suggests that they help to fight infections.
The main symptom of tonsillitis is a sore throat. There may be several other symptoms such as coughing, headaches and a fever (see Symptoms for more information).
Tonsillitis can be caused by either a virus or bacteria, although most cases are viral. The incubation period (the time between picking up the infection and symptoms starting to appear) is usually two to four days.
Tonsillitis can spread from person to person through hand contact (then touching your mouth with contaminated hands), breathing in the airborne droplets after someone with tonsillitis has sneezed or sharing the utensils or toothbrush of an infected person.

Varicose veins are swollen and enlarged veins that are usually blue or dark purple. They may also be lumpy, bulging or twisted in appearance.
Varicose veins develop when the small valves inside the veins stop working properly. In a healthy vein, blood flows smoothly to the heart. The blood is prevented from flowing backwards by a series of tiny valves that open and close to let blood through. If the valves weaken or are damaged, the blood can flow backwards and can collect in the vein, eventually causing it to be varicose (swollen and enlarged).
Warts are small, rough lumps on the skin that are benign (non-cancerous). They often appear on the hands and feet.
Warts can look different depending on where they appear on the body and how thick the skin is. A wart on the sole of the foot is called a verruca. The clinical name for a verruca is a plantar wart.
Warts are caused by infection with a virus known as the human papilloma virus (HPV). HPV causes keratin, a hard protein in the top layer of the skin (the epidermis) to grow too much. This produces the rough, hard texture of a wart.