Friday, 9 March 2012

Research - aromatherapy for post operative nausea

Provided they are used in diluted form and in accordance with the label instructions aromatherapy products present little hazard to health.
Essential oils and essences are mixtures of chemicals.  The distillation process means that the sizes of the chemicals is limited to a molecular weight of some 400 and do not include heavier elements like chlorine.  Essential oils are therefore safe.  However even hydrocarbons should be used with care and in accordance with the labels instructions.  If used on the skin a simple test should be done as some one in a thousand people are sensitive to essential oils and redness can result.  This disappears if the essential oil is washed off.  Pregnancy is a red flag for all chemicals.
A material safety data sheet (MSDS), safety data sheet (SDS), or product safety data sheet (PSDS) is intended to provide workers and emergency personnel with procedures for handling or working with that substance in a safe manner, and includes information such as physical data (melting point, boiling point, flash point etc.), toxicity, health effects, first aid, reactivity, storage, disposal, protective equipment, and spill-handling procedures. MSDS formats can vary from source to source within a country depending on national requirements.
SDSs are a widely used system for cataloging information on chemicals, chemical compounds and chemical mixtures. SDS information may include instructions for the safe use and potential hazards associated with a particular material or product. These datasheets can be found anywhere where chemicals are being used.
There is also a duty to properly label substances on the basis of physico-chemical, health and/or environmental risk. Labels can include hazard symbols such as the European Union Standard black diagonal cross on an orange background, used to denote a harmful substance.
In the UK, the Chemicals (Hazard Information and Packaging for Supply) Regulations 2002 - known as CHIP Regulations - impose duties upon suppliers, and importers into the EU, of hazardous materials.The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations govern the use of hazardous substances in the workplace in the UK and specifically require an assessment of the use of a substance.Regulation 12 requires that an employer provides employees with information, instruction and training for people exposed to hazardous substances.


Organic Essential Oils

Angelica Root(Angelica archangelica)
Aniseed(Pimpinella anisum)
Basil ct linalool(Ocimum basilicum)
Basil ct methylchavicol(Ocimum basilicum)
Benzoin(Styrax benzoin)
Bergamot(Citrus bergamia)
Cajuput(Melaleuca leucadendron)
Caraway(Carum carvi)
Cardamom(Elettaria cardamomum)
Carrotseed(Daucus carota)
Cedarwood Atlas(Cedrus atlantica)
Chamomile German(Matricaria recutita)
Chamomile Moroccan(Ormenis mixta)
Chamomile Roman(Chamaemelum nobile)
Cinnamon Bark(Cinnamomum zeylanicum)
Cinnamon Leaf(Cinnamomum zeylanicum)
Cistus(Cistus labdaniferus)
Citronella(Cymbopogon winterianus)
Clove Bud(Syzgium aromaticum)
Clary Sage(Salvia sclarea)
Coriander(Coriandrum sativum)
Cypress(Cupressus sempervirens)
Dill(Anethum graveolens)
Eucalyptus(Eucalyptus citriodora)
Eucalyptus(Eucalyptus globulus)
Eucalyptus(Eucalyptus Radiata)
Eucalyptus(Eucalyptus smithii)
Fennel(Foeniculum vulgare)
Frankincense(Boswellia carteri)
Geranium(Pelargonium graveolens)
GeraniumBourbon(Pelargonium graveolens)
Ginger(Zingiber officinalis)
Grapefruit(Citrus paradisi)
Immortelle(Helichrysum italicum)
Hyssop(Hyssopus decumbens)
Inula(Inula graveolens)
Juniper(Juniperus communis)
Lavandin(Lavendula Burnati)
LavenderFine AOC(Lavandula angustifolia)
Lavender(Lavandula officinalis)
Lavender Spike(Lavendula latifolia)
Lemon(Citrus limon)
Lemongrass(Cymbopogon citratus)
Lime(Citrus aurantifolia)
Lovage(Levisticum officinale)
May Chang(Litsea cubeba citrata)
Mandarin(Citrus reticulata)
Marjoram sweet(Origanum majorana)
Melissa(Melissa officinalis)
Myrtle Red(Myrtus communis)
Neroli(Citrus aurantium var amara)
Niaouli(Melaleuca viridiflora)
Nutmeg(Myristica fragrans)
Orange bitter(Citrus aurantium var amara)
Orange sweet(Citrus aurantium var sinensis)
Oregano(Origanum vulgare)
Palmarosa(Cymbopogon martinii)
Patchouli(Pogostemon cablin)
Pepper Black(Piper nigrum)
Peppermint(Mentha x piperita)
Petitgrain(Citrus aurantium var amara)
Pine(Pinus sylvestris)
Ravensara(Ravensara aromatica)
Rose Otto(Rosa damascena)
Rosemary Verbenone(Rosemarinus officianalis)
Rosemary Cineol(Rosmanius officinalis)
Sage(Salvia officinalis)
Spikenard(Nardostachys jatamansi)
Star anise(Illicum verum hook)
Tagetes(Tagetes minuta)
Tea Tree(Melaleuca alternifolia)
Thyme sweet(Thymus zygis)
Vetiver(Vetiveria zizanoides)
Wintergreen(Gaultheria fragrantissima)
Ylang ylang extra(Cananga odorata)
Ylang ylang complete(Cananga odorata)
Ylang ylang 1(Cananga odorata)
Ylang ylang 2(Cananga odorata)
Ylang Ylang 3(Cananga odorata)


Essential oils of Ginger, Peppermint and Cardomon, essential oils on Wikipedia

Ginger           |  MSDS   |    Wikipedia    |  Pubmed
Peppermint    |  MSDS   |    Wikipedia    |  Pubmed
Cardomom     |  MSDS   |    Wikipedia    |  Pubmed

Aromatherapy as Treatment for Postoperative Nausea: A Randomized Trial.


From the *Department of Anesthesia, Carolinas Medical Center University, Charlotte, NC;


Background:Postoperative nausea (PON) is a common complication of anesthesia and surgery. Antiemetic medication for higher-risk patients may reduce but does not reliably prevent PON. We examined aromatherapy as a treatment for patients experiencing PON after ambulatory surgery. Our primary hypothesis was that in comparison with inhaling a placebo, PON will be reduced significantly by aromatherapy with (1) essential oil of ginger, (2) a blend of essential oils of ginger, spearmint, peppermint, and cardamom, or (3) isopropyl alcohol. Our secondary hypothesis was that the effectiveness of aromatherapy will depend upon the agent used.Methods:A randomized trial of aromatherapy with patients who reported nausea in the postanesthesia care unit was conducted at one ambulatory surgical center. Eligibility criteria were adult, able to give consent, and no history of coagulation problems or allergy to the aromatherapy agents. Before surgery, demographic and risk factors were collected. Patients with a nausea level of 1 to 3 on a verbal descriptive scale (0-3) received a gauze pad saturated with a randomly chosen aromatherapy agent and were told to inhale deeply 3 times; nausea (0-3) was then measured again in 5 minutes. Prophylactic and postnausea antiemetics were given as ordered by physicians or as requested by the patient.Results:A total of 1151 subjects were screened for inclusion; 303 subjects reporting nausea were enrolled (26.3%), and 301 meeting protocol were analyzed (26.2%). The change in nausea level was significant for the blend (P < 0.001) and ginger (P = 0.002) versus saline but not for alcohol (P < 0.76). The number of antiemetic medications requested after aromatherapy was also significantly reduced with ginger or blend aromatherapy versus saline (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001, respectively).Conclusion:The hypothesis that aromatherapy would be effective as a treatment for PON was supported. On the basis of our results, future research further evaluating aromatherapy is warranted. Aromatherapy is promising as an inexpensive, noninvasive treatment for PON that can be administered and controlled by patients as needed.

Aromatherapy serves as an effective and inexpensive treatment for postoperative nausea, according to a studypublished in the March issue of Anesthesia & Analgesia

Researchers administered three types of aromatherapy to postoperative patients who reported nausea: essential oil of ginger; a blend of essential oils of ginger, spearmint, peppermint, and cardamom; and isopropyl alcohol. The ginger oil and blend both proved effective in reducing patient nausea, but the alcohol did not.

Aromatherapy has become the focus of an increasing number of studies on postoperative nausea due to its noninvasiveness and low cost.

An earlier study which used peppermint alone

To determine whether aromatherapy can reduce postoperative nausea, the investigators studied 33 ambulatory surgery patients who complained of nausea in the PACU. After indicating the severity of nausea on a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS), subjects received randomized aromatherapy with isopropyl alcohol, oil of peppermint, or saline (placebo). The vapors were inhaled deeply through the nose from scented gauze pads held directly beneath the patients' nostrils and exhaled slowly through the mouth. Two and 5 minutes later, the subjects rated their nausea on the VAS. Overall nausea scores decreased from 60.6 +/- 4.3 mm (mean +/- SE) before aromatherapy to 43.1 +/- 4.9 mm 2 minutes after aromatherapy (P <.005), and to 28.0 +/- 4.6 mm 5 minutes after aromatherapy (P < 10(-6)). Nausea scores did not differ between the treatments at any time. Only 52% of the patients required conventional intravenous (IV) antiemetic therapy during their PACU stay. Overall satisfaction with postoperative nausea management was 86.9 +/- 4.1 mm and was independent of the treatment group. Aromatherapy effectively reduced the perceived severity of postoperative nausea. The fact that a saline "placebo" was as effective as alcohol or peppermint suggests that the beneficial effect may be related more to controlled breathing patterns than to the actual aroma inhaled.

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