Saturday, 30 June 2012

Aroma and chemistry - quick revision guide


Common name Latin name Aroma Contains
Basil Ocimum basilicum Stimulating, Floral, Woody, Spicy, Herbal Limonene, Pinene, Linalol, Methy chavicol
Bergamot Citrus bergamia Top note used much in perfumery Monoterpenes, esters
Benzoin Styrax tonkinensis Characteristic - benzoin Benzoic aldehyde, vanillin 
Black pepper Piper nigrum Characteristic peppery.  Balsamic - sweet Myrcene
German Chamomile Matricaria recutita Balsamic, spicy Bisabolene, chamazulene
Roman Chamomile  Anthemis nobilis Characteristic Angelates
Cedarwood cedrus atlantica Woody - faint Cedrol
Cinnamon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Characteristic cinnamonlike Cinnamic aldehyde
Clary Sage Salvia sclarea Herbal, slightly fruity Linalyl acetate
Clove Eugenia caryophyllus Characteristic
Coriander Leaf Coriandrum sativum Characteristic
Cypress Cupressus sempervirens Woody - faint Cedrol
Eucalyptus globulus Eucalyptus globulus Characteristic eucalyptus 1,8 Cineole
Eucalyptus radiata Eucalyptus radiata Characteristic
Fennel Foeniculum vulgare Camphorous - warm Estragol
Fir Abies Alba Characteristic
Frankincense Bowellia carterii Citrus, spicy, woody Phellandrene
Geranium Pelargonium graveolens Floral - roselike Citronellol
Ginger Zingiber officinale Spicy, sharp, woody - slight
Grapefruit Citrus paradisii Citrus - weak, refreshing Limonene
Helichrysum Helichrysum italicum Characteristic
Jasmine Jasminum grandiflorum Sweet, heady aroma Jasmone
Juniperberry Juniperus communis Camphorous, spicy, woody, herbal Camphene, pinene
Lavender Lavendula angustifolia Grassy, sweet, herbal Linalool, Linalyl acetate
Lavender Organic Lavendula angustifolia Grassy, sweet, herbal Linalool, Linalyl acetate
Lavender Fine Wild Lavendula angustifolia Grassy, sweet, herbal Linalool, Linalyl acetate
Lemon Citrus limon Citrus - roselike Citronellal
Lemongrass Cymbopogon flexuosus Sweet - roselike fruity Geranyl acetate, citral
Lime Citrus aurantifolia Citrus Limonene
Mandarin Citrus reticulata  blanco Citrus - soft Citral, alcohols
Marjoram Origanum majorana Spicy - clove like Eugenol
Melaleuca (Tea tree) Melaleuca alternifolia Citrus like - fresh Terpinene, terpinen-4-ol
Melissa Melissa officinalis Citrus like - sweet
Myrhh Commiphora myrrha Characteristic
Neroli Citrus aurantium amara Sweet - roselike fruity Neryl acetate, Nerol
Orange Citrus sinensis Citrus - weak,  Limonene
Oregano Origanum vulgare Characteristic
Patchouli Pogostemon cablin Earthy Patchoulol
Peppermint Mentha piperita Minty - fresh Menthol
Petitgrain Citrus aurantium Woody, characteristic  Linalyl acetate, Pinene
Pine Pinus sylvestris Woody, characteristic pine Pinene
Rosemary cineole Rosmarinus officinalis Camphorous, woody Bornyl acetate, Borneol
Rosemary verbenone
Camphorous, woody Bornyl acetate, Borneol
Rose absolute
Characteristic rose Citronellol, phenyl ethanol
Rose otto
Characteristic rose Citronellol, phenyl ethanol
Rose otto organic
Characteristic rose Citronellol, phenyl ethanol
Sandalwood Santalum album (New Caledonia) Woody Santalol
Thyme thymol Thymus vulgaris Herbal - spicy Carvacrol
Vetiver Vetiveria zizanioides Heavy aroma
Wintergreen Gaultheria fragrantissima

Ylang Ylang Cananga odorata Floral - fruity Benzyl acetate, linalyl acetate



Sweet almond



Argan Organic

Golden Jojoba Organic 

Carriers - Golden Organic Jojoba goes to a premium

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Size Organic Argan Golden Organic Jojoba Organic Rosehip
Size Organic Argan Golden Organic Jojoba Organic Rosehip

15 4.15 2.88 2.88
15 8.30 5.76 5.76
30 7.30 4.75 4.75
30 14.60 9.50 9.50
50 11.50 7.25 7.25
50 23.00 14.50 14.50
100 21.30 10.30 10.30
100 42.60 20.60 20.60
125 26.55 12.80 12.80
125 53.10 25.60 25.60
150 31.80 15.30 15.30
150 63.60 30.60 30.60
200 42.30 20.30 20.30
200 84.60 40.60 40.60
250 52.80 25.30 25.30
250 105.60 50.60 50.60
500 84.30 50.30 50.30
500 168.60 100.60 100.60
1000 126.30 75.30 75.30
1000 252.60 150.60 150.60
5000 630.30 375.30 375.30
5000 1260.60 750.60 750.60

Thursday, 28 June 2012

Aromatherapy for healing the spirit - Gabriel Mojay

Aromatherapy for Healing the Spirit. Just a comment which may improve the accessibility of this invaluable book. Personally if I am ever having to justify aromatherapy to a sceptical medical practioner or journalist it is the psycho-social aspects of the oils to which I point. 

Books written by massage therapists tend naturally to concentrate on the bodily oils on which their clients consult them. The sections on emotions and psycho-therapeutic aspects usually leave one feeling there is more to learn. It is important we do because 'depression' and disharmonies of the psyche is increasingly a condition which the fee earning aromatherapist is called upon to advise. 

Gabriel's insight into traditional chinese theory and practice is profoundly useful. We labour with unfamiliar concepts and names, opening and closing the book in frustration, and then like a citrus flower bursting into 5 petaled glory we come to the pages on depression. Water, Wood, Fire, Earth, Metal it is set out there. The usefulness of this system of thought with the insights into human nature and its harmonies and disharmonies are there set out simply and beautifully for us. 

Self knowledge let alone knowledge of anothers psyche to the point of becoming a fee earning professional is one of the highest goals of all knowledge and can only really come with experience - our own or benefiting by study and conversation from the experience of others. Whether a health professional looking for self care or to use the oils therapeutically this section of the book is well worth the effort we make in getting there!

Ian Brealey

Wednesday, 27 June 2012

Conversations - Purity

 "first of all define what pure is. I would suggest starting with a statement I heard from Dr. David Hill. Pure is 1) only Volatile Aromatic Compounds, 2) the Right Aromatic Molecules, 3)Therapeutic Concentration." 


Yes a definition of purity is key. Here that would include your 1,2 with reasonable relation as regards to constituents to British Pharmacopoeia standards (and published collections of GCMS results) which of course are just an average as crops vary. 

Obtaining GCMS for every batch is a key control and if it is not available then that speaks volumes. 

It is not possible to claim 3.  therapeutic concentration for one particular oil as aromatherapists (home user or fee earning professional) rarely use a single oil but blend several oils in recipes (Worwoods are a particularly good guide) for their therapeutic (bodily or psycho-social) effect without one oil necessarily dominating the blend. Oils used on their own often lack therapeutic effect. 

The ATC adopt a policy of random testing of members oils so it is not the company making the statement on their label 'PURE ESSENTIAL OIL' it is the industry. 

ORGANIC provides further assurance not just of a lack of contaminents but of purity because the oil is traced from farm/distiller to manufacturer by inspection of staff and records and reconciliation of quantities bought and sold. 

One day we will get date of distillation but the best by date is not a bad guide to freshness because deterioration of the oil tends to take place in use as the cap is removed and replaced and in storage (is the oil kept refrigerated or not, citrus should be).

Ian Brealey

Essentia per mutua

Monday, 25 June 2012

11-13 April 2013
 8th annual ICCMR congress
Institute of Education,London

Sunday, 24 June 2012

Opinion - EOs and disease

There is a creep of medicalising lots of things that we cope with in daily life. Psychological matters are rarely disease. As I see it the essential oils are a natural extension of the essential oils in the fruit and vegetables we utilise in our diet for health and wellbeing but in a more convenient form particularly for diffusing for mood effect. When we come to psychological mood effects the EOs are particularly valuable and of course harmless. 

The EOs (in sufficient dose) do exert a pharmacological effect - their antiviral, fungal and bactericidal effects are particularly strong.  So we meet the pharmaceutical companies and those who push their products coming the other way. The EOs cannot be patented. If they could the pharmaceutical companies would be praising them to the rooftops! However in the sort of doses of EOs we are talking about there is no pharmacological effect worth speaking of. That is why when we use or diffuse the oils we can say "This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent disease." 

School administrators would think nothing of a mum putting fruit and veg in the lunchbox so eos in an inhaler or in a playdoh should not present a challenge but of course it can. With education we can change attitudes and improve understanding.  Lets see how far we can get with just a few oils - lavender, lemon and pepermint, None of these should be a challenge to a school administrator.

Endocrine System
Cardiovascular system
Muscular/skeletal system
Immune system
Nervous system
Skin and hair


Aromatherapy uses

Baby - nappy rash, Breast abcess (mastitis), Chicken pox, Cystitis, Eczema, Fluid retention, Headaches, Herpes, Leg ulcers, Mumps, Osteoarthritis, Post natal infections, Ringworm, Stretch marks, Thrush

Aromatherapy profile

Lavender angustifolia ('vrac') is analgesic, antifungal, antiinflammatory, antispetic helpful for skin conditions.  It is an excellent skincell regenerator helping healing of wounds and scars.  It is recommended for arthritis, burns, headaches, radiography burns, eczema, herpes, psoriasis, spots and woulds.  It is a generally calming oil, has excellent bactericidal and analgesic properties.  It lowers blood pressure and is recommended for headaches and migraines.

Aroma profile

Soothing floral aroma.


Aromatherapy uses

Blood pressure - high, Periods - heavy

Aromatherapy profile

Lemon oil is antispasmodic and calming. It lowers blood pressure, rejuvenates and generally cleanses the body.

Aroma profile

Characteristic clean and refreshing lemon aroma.  Safety.  Phototoxic.  Should be used with caution before exposure to sunlight or UV beds.


Aromatherapy uses

Colds, Headaches, Visible veins

Aromatherapy profile

Peppermint oil is antiinflammatory, bactericidal, an analgesic and a tonic to the system.  It lowers fever, is a good expectorant and clears the senses helping mental fatigue and nervous exhaustion.  It constricts capillaries and is recommended for asthma, eczema, gnats, herpes, rashes and ringworm.  It helps headaches, migraines and stress.

Aroma profile

Characteristic clean limonene aroma.  Safety.  Phototoxic.  Should be used with caution before exposure to sunlight or UV beds. 

Ian Brealey

Wednesday, 13 June 2012

Only Lavender and Tea Tree are safe to put directly on the skin?

Tea tree works best in combination with other antifungal oils and as these require dilution it will be normal to drop some tea tree and other oils into a little carrier like a cream or jojoba before application to the feet.  other antifungal oils to try are 

Eucalyptus Citriodora, Geranium, Rose, Sandalwood, Vetiver, Lemongrass, Patchouli, Spikenard, and Palmarosa

 Tea tree is one oil that is not absorbed readily into the skin. If you are treating a surface fungal infection then the addition of a carrier to assist absorption into the skin doesnt make sense.

On sensitisation generally I guess its worth reflecting here why the lamiaceae developed essential oils at all. Look at peppermint (menthol) and thyme (thymol). Brush your hands through the leaves and you get a nice smelling dusting of essential oil. Not so much as to irritate our skin but if you are a snail or a fungus then its death. Rubbing concentrated peppermint oil or thyme oil onto the skin is therefore probably not a good idea! remember the snails! 


Lavender (esters) as a mountain plant by contrast developed its own non toxic essential oil primarily to attract insects to its remote location and the oil is concentrated in the flowers not the leaves. lavender is therefore prone to periodic snail attack when its grown at lower altitudes but safe enough for our skin in small amounts but dilution is the sensible norm to follow even with lavender.

Bergamot is phototoxic and a potential skin sensitiser. The principal ingredient in eau de cologne it is sprayed on and as the alcohol evaporates so the bergamot is in direct contact with the skin but the effect of the spray is to spread the bergamot over the skin. 

 Why did the rutaceae develop essential oils? To keep the bugs off until the seed and fruit is sufficiently developed to be consumed. So if the lamiaceae and rutaceae developed essential oil as a pesticide (and that is much of essential oil use to us, the psycho-therapeutic properties apart,), would you drop an undiluted pesticide onto your skin? whether pure? whether natural? 

It is worth bearing in mind that essential oils should be diluted when applied to the skin for external use.  Oils used like this as well as being carried into the body volatise.  Essential oil that is that is taken internally has no such escape.  Therefore our safety cautions found with our tough external skin apply 100 fold when we are talking about our sensitive internal skin.
If you nontheless do feel tempted to put orange or lemon oil in a glass of water then bear in mind that limonene is an industrial degreasing agent.  So take care on the dose unless you want that desired effect!


Successful topical treatment of warts


Monday, 11 June 2012


Stockist details


Retail site



Organic Essential Oils

Angelica Root (Angelica archangelica)
Aniseed (Pimpinella anisum)
Basil ct linalool (Ocimum basilicum)
Basil ct methylchavicol (Ocimum basilicum)
Benzoin (Styrax benzoin)
Bergamot (Citrus bergamia)
Cajuput (Melaleuca leucadendron)
Caraway (Carum carvi)
Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum)
Carrot seed (Daucus carota)
Cedarwood Atlas (Cedrus atlantica)
Chamomile German (Matricaria recutita)
Chamomile Moroccan (Ormenis mixta)
Chamomile Roman (Chamaemelum nobile)
Cinnamon Bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum)
Cinnamon Leaf (Cinnamomum zeylanicum)
Cistus (Cistus labdaniferus)
Citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus)
Clove Bud (Syzgium aromaticum)
Clary Sage (Salvia sclarea)
Coriander (Coriandrum sativum)
Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens)
Dill (Anethum graveolens)
Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora)
Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus)
Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus Radiata)
Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus smithii)
Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare)
Frankincense (Boswellia carteri)
Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens)
Geranium Bourbon (Pelargonium graveolens)
Ginger (Zingiber officinalis)
Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi)
Immortelle(Helichrysum italicum)
Hyssop (Hyssopus decumbens)
Inula (Inula graveolens)
Juniper (Juniperus communis)
Lavandin (Lavendula Burnati)
Lavender Fine AOC (Lavandula angustifolia)
Lavender (Lavandula officinalis)
Lavender Spike (Lavendula latifolia)
Lemon (Citrus limon)
Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus)
Lime (Citrus aurantifolia)
Lovage (Levisticum officinale)
May Chang (Litsea cubeba citrata)
Mandarin (Citrus reticulata)
Marjoram sweet (Origanum majorana)
Melissa (Melissa officinalis)
Myrtle Red (Myrtus communis)
Neroli (Citrus aurantium var amara)
Niaouli (Melaleuca viridiflora)
Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans)
Orange bitter (Citrus aurantium var amara)
Orange sweet (Citrus aurantium var sinensis)
Oregano (Origanum vulgare)
Palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii)
Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin)
Pepper Black (Piper nigrum)
Peppermint (Mentha x piperita)
Petitgrain (Citrus aurantium var amara)
Pine (Pinus sylvestris)
Ravensara (Ravensara aromatica)
Rose Otto (Rosa damascena)
Rosemary Verbenone (Rosemarinus officianalis)
Rosemary Cineol (Rosmanius officinalis)
Sage (Salvia officinalis)
Spikenard (Nardostachys jatamansi)
Star anise (Illicum verum hook)
Tagetes (Tagetes minuta)
Tea Tree (Melaleuca alternifolia)
Thyme sweet (Thymus zygis)
Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanoides)
Wintergreen (Gaultheria fragrantissima)
Ylang ylang extra (Cananga odorata)
Ylang ylang complete (Cananga odorata)
Ylang ylang 1 (Cananga odorata)
Ylang ylang 2 (Cananga odorata)
Ylang Ylang 3 (Cananga odorata)