Wednesday, 11 July 2012

Essential oils - Generally recognised as safe for food use

Essential oils generally recognised as safe for use in food and drink for flavouring.  FEMA

Much of what we perceive as flavour is in fact the aroma of food.

The following oils are generally recognised as safe (GRAS) to be used in food and drink.

A maximum dilution of 0.016% (155 parts per million) is used by food and beverage manufacturers so the fact that essential oils have GRAS status should not be taken as indicative of safety in internal use in excess of a dose like this.

Angelica Root Oil (Angelica archangelica) (FEMA 2088) and seed oil (FEMA 2090)
One of the most powerful flavour materials of plant origin
Food Uses: baked goods, beverages and candy

Aniseed and Star Anise Oil (Pimpinella anisum) (FEMA 2094)
Food uses: baked goods, beverages and chewing gum

Basil Oil (Ocimum basilicum) (FEMA 2119)
Food uses: baked goods, meats, vegetables, sweets, soups, beverages, chewing gum

Bay oils (Laurus nobilis) (Laurel FEMA 2613, Pimenta FEMA 2122)
Food uses: baked goods, frozen dairy, meat and vegetables, candies and beverages

Benzoin (Styrax benzoin) (FEMA 2132), Benzoin Resin (FEMA 2133)
Food uses: A wide variety of foods and alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages

Bergamot Oil (Citrus bergamia) (FEMA 2153)
Food uses: baked goods, frozen dairy, meats, candies, beverages, chewing gum and Earl Grey tea.

Cajuput Oil (Melaleuca leucadendron) (FEMA 2225)
Food uses: baked goods, frozen dairy, meats, candies and beverages

Camphor oil (Cinnamomum camphora) (FEMA 2231)
Food uses: various

Carrot seed oil (Daucus carota) (FEMA 2244)
Food uses: spicy foods and sauces

Cassia oil (Cinnamomum cassia) (FEMA 2258)
Food uses: liqueur and cherry flavours

Cedarwood oil (juniperus virginiana)
Not generally used in food except for temporary use 

Celery seed oil (Apium graveolens) (FEMA 2271)
Food uses: wide use, dairy, condiments,soups, puddings, beverages

Chamomile German oil (Matricaria recutita) (FEMA 2271)
Food uses: wide use

Chamomile Roman Oil (Chamaemelum nobile) (FEMA 2272)
Food uses: wide use

Cinnamon Bark Oil (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) (FEMA 2291) Leaf Oil (FEMA 2292)
Food uses: wide

Citronella oil (Cymbopogon nardus) (FEMA 2308)
Food uses: wide

Clary Sage Oil (Salvia sclarea) (FEMA 2321)
Food uses: used in major food products, frozen dairy dessert, candy, baked goods, gelatin, puddings, condiments, relishes, and beverages.  Vermouths and to flavour wine with a muscatel flavour.  Highest reported use is 0.016% (155ppm) in alcoholic beverages.

Clove Oil (Syzygium aromaticum) (FEMA 2323 (bud), FEMA 2325 (leaf).
Food uses: wide.  Also in pharmaceutical and dental products.  Accepted daily intake is upto 2.5mg/kg of body weight.

Cornmint oil (Mentha arvensis)
All mints have a cool feeling on the mucous membranes in the nose and mouth and on the skin.  They are used in toothpastes.
Food uses: limited but is substituted for peppermint

Cubeb oil (Piper cubeba) (FEMA 2339)
Food uses: wide use

Cypress oil (Cupressus sempervirens)
Food uses: not used

Eucalyptus oil (E. Globulus) (FEMA 2466)
E. Globulus is generally recognised as safe.
Food uses; used in many foods and beverages

Fennel oil (Foeniculum vulgare) (FEMA 2483)
Food uses: wide

Frankincense oil (Boswellia carterii)(FEMA 2816)
Food uses: wide

Geranium oil (Zingiber officinale) (FEMA 2508)
Food uses: baked goods, frozen dairy, gelatin and pudding, beverages, hard candy and chewing gum

Ho leaf oil (Cinnamomum camphora)
Food uses: temporary use

Hyssop oil (Hyssopus officinalis) (FEMA 2591)
Food uses: a number of foods and beverages for example in Chartreuse and other liqueurs.

Jasmine Absolute (Jasminum grandiflorum) (FEMA 2598), concrete (FEMA 2599)
Food uses: various

Juniper berry oil (Juniperus communis) (FEMA 2604)
Food uses:  various food and beverages.  Used as a flavouring component in gin.

Lavender oil (Lavandula angustifolia)
Lavandin oil (FEMA 2618), Lavander oil (FEMA 2622), Spike lavender oil (FEMA 3033) and Lavender absolute (FEMA 2620)
Food uses: natural food flavours in baked goods, frozen dairy, soft candy, gelatin, puddunf and beverages.  Dosage Level from 4 to 44 ppm.

Lemon Balm Oil/Melissa Oil (Melissa officinalis)
Food uses: not used

Lemon Oil (Citrus limonum) (FEMA 2625) terpeneless oil (FEMA 2626)
Food uses: widely used in food and beverages

Lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon citratus) (FEMA 2624)
Food uses: widely used

Litsea cubeba oil (Litsea cubeba)
Food uses: not used

Manuka oil (Leptospermum scoparium)
Food uses: none

Marjoram oil (Origanum majorana) (FEMA 2663)
Food uses: wide use

Myrhh Oil (Commiphora myrrha) (FEMA 2766)
Food uses: wide use

Myrtle Oil (Myrtus communis)
Food uses: none

Neroli oil (Citrus aurantium) Neroli bigarde oil (FEMA 2771)
Food uses: some both food and drink

Nutmeg Oil (Myristica fragrans)
Food uses: widely used.  Nutmeg masks odours.

Orange Oil (Citrus sinensis)
Sweet orange oil (FEMA 2825), terpenless (FEMA 2822), bitter orange (FEMA 2345)
Food uses: wide use in food and beverages

Palmarosa Oil (Cymbopogon Martinii) (FEMA 2831)
Food uses: many food and beverage uses

Parsley Oil (Petroselinum crispum)
Food use: common used in foods especially pickles, sauces and meats and drinks.  It is used as gripe water for babies.

Patchouli oil (Pogostemon cablin) (FEMA 2838)
Food use: used in a variety of foods and beverages

Pepper oil (Piper nigrum) (FEMA 2845)
Food use: used in various baked goods, frozen dairy, meats, candies and beverages

Peppermint oil (Mentha piperita) (FEMA 2848)
FEMA classifies menthol as GRAS and the US FDA has approved menthol for food use.
Food uses: Peppermint is used in baked goods, frozen dairy, meats, candies, beverages, toothpastes and chewing gum.  All mints have a cool feeling on the mucous membranes in the nose, mouth and skin.

Peru Balsam (Myroxylon balsamum)
Food uses: citrus fruit peel, baked goods, confectionary, cola, soft drinks, aperitifs
Warning: Sensitiser benzyl benzoate 78%

Petitgrain oil (Citrus aurantium)
Food uses: used in some foods

Pine Oil (Pinus sylvestris) (FEMA 2906)
Food uses: used in a number of food and beverages

Rose oil (Rosa damascena) Rose Otto (FEMA 2989) Rose absolute (FEMA 2988)
Food uses: used in baked goods, gelatines, soft candies and beverages.  Rose absolute in very low concentration is used to round off and lift many flavours.

Rosemary Oil (Rosmarinus officinalis) (FEMA 2992)
Food uses: many uses

Sage Oil (Salvia officinalis)
Dalmatian Sage (FEMA 3001), Spanish Sage (FEMA 3003)
Food uses: many uses
Warning: care over concentration of thujones.

Sandalwood Oil (Santalum album)
Food use: East Indian Sandalwood (FEMA 3005) is used in food but is not important.

Savory Oil (Satureja hortensis)
Food use: Summer Savory (FEMA 3013) and Winter Savory (FEMA 3017) are used in many foods and beverages

Spearmint Oil (Mentha spicata) (FEMA 3032)
Food use: Spearmint  is used in baked goods, frozen dairy, meats, candies, beverages and chewing gum

Spike Lavender Oil (Lavandula latifolia) (FEMA 3033)
Food use: spike oil is used in a variety of foods and beverages

Tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia)
Food use: temporary acceptability but GRAS status not given

Thyme Oil (Thymus vulgaris)
Food use: Thyme is used in numerous foods

Valerian Root Oil (Valeriana officinalis)(FEMA 3100)
Food use: used in many foods and beverages giving effects with apple, beer, tobacco and liqueur flavours.

Vanilla Oil (Vanilla plantifolia) (FEMA 3106)
Food use: vanilla oleoresin has many uses in foods particularly cakes, ice cream, beverages and to flavour tinctures, syrups, and confectionary.

Wintergreen Oil (Gaultheria procumbens) (FEMA 3113)
Food use: used in many foods, beverages, candies and toothpastes.

Yarrow Root Oil (Achillea millefolium)
GRAS status not given
Only use in alcoholic beverages and the finished product must be thujone free

Ylang Ylang oil (Cananga odorata) (FEMA 3119)
Food use: used in many foods and beverages

Ian Brealey




Fenaroli 1997

1 comment:

  1. If it is approved as GRAS...can it be used in all foods...or just what is listed.